Location: Horticultural Crops Research2013 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Objective 1: Employ semiochemicals to enhance the monitoring and management of Otiorhynchus sulcatus and Drosophila suzukii as well as to manipulate their natural enemies. Objective 2: Develop integrated pest management tools for key pests of ornamental nursery and small fruit crops. Objective 3: Address invasive and reemerging arthropod pests of nursery and small fruit crops.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
The bionomics and the chemical ecology of economically-important insect pests of nursery and small fruits crops will be studied in the field and under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and light in growth chambers and greenhouses. Emphasis will also be placed on understanding the ecology of the microbial control agents of these pests in the laboratory greenhouse and field. Together, the information compiled on the ecology of the pests and their respective microbial control agents will be integrated to begin development of biologically-based pest management programs.
3. Progress Report:
To clarify the role of raspberry aphids in vectoring viruses to raspberries, we monitored aphid attraction, reproduction and feeding behaviors on susceptible and resistant black raspberry plants. To determine the impact of mixed virus infections, we studied the attraction, longevity, fecundity and feeding behavior of aphids on raspberries infected with one virus, or co-infected with two viruses. These results enable us to understand aphid behavior and performance in response to virus-infected plants, and can be helpful for developing management programs. To better understand the new invasive spotted wing drosophila, we conducted studies on the susceptibility of different ripeness stages and cultivars of blueberries. With this data, we determined the risk a blueberry had of being attacked based on its firmness, skin penetration force, pH and brix level. We also determined their spring time activity, and attraction to various baits. This will improve monitoring protocols for growers, and potentially reduce pesticide sprays on a calender schedule. To develop control options, we tested the efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi and reduced pesticide sprays compared to full coverage sprays. Results showed that some biological control agents were not effective, and will prevent growers/homeowners from investing in unreliable options. A reduction in pesticide spray will enable growers and the public to reduce costs. To better understand the new invasive brown marmorated stink bug, we conducted studies on the voltinism, parasitism of eggs, and olfaction to plant odors. The voltinism data is useful for predicting population cycles in the local area and will assist growers with timing of control measures. Identification of naturally occurring parasitoids will allow us to further develop biological control programs. Identification of attractive odors will help improve monitoring practices.
1. Improved trapping for spotted wing drosophila. The spotted wing drosophila is a recent invasive pest of small and stone fruits in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Europe and current monitoring traps need to be improved for widespread grower adoption. ARS scientist in Corvallis, Oregon, determined that traps with greater bait surface area, side entry, and red or yellow in color caught more flies than traps with smaller bait surface area, top entry, and white or clear colors in a coordinated study across seven states/provinces in North America and nine crop types. These results provided information for growers/scouts whom wanted to improve their 2013 trapping protocol and insight on future trap improvement. Monitoring programs in Oregon, and commercial traps have adopted red coloration based on these results, and results have been submitted for publication.
2. Flight capability of brown marmorated stink bug. The brown marmorated stink bug is a recent invasive pest of numerous crops including tree fruits, small fruits, field crops and ornamentals. ARS scientist in Corvallis, Oregon, cooperated on a study that showed that this stink bug has the capacity for long distance flight, particularly in the summer generation. Knowing the flight capacity of the bug will help predict its dispersal patterns in the agricultural landscape. Results have been submitted for publication.
3. Virus infection affects aphids. Pathogens may alter their hosts which consequently increases transmission efficiency by vectors. ARS scientist in Corvallis, Oregon, found that raspberry plants infected with a single or two virus(es) impacted the behavior and performance of the raspberry aphid. Improved understanding of the complex relationships between virus infection and vector transmission will benefit virus epidemiology and disease management. Results have been submitted for publication.
Lee, J.C., Burrack, H.J., Barrantes, L.D., Beers, E.H., Dreves, A.J., Hamby, K., Haviland, D.R., Isaacs, R., Richardson, T., Shearer, P., Stanley, C.A., Walsh, D.B., Walton, V.M., Zalom, F.G., Bruck, D.J. 2012. Evaluation of monitoring traps for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in North America. Journal of Economic Entomology. 105:1350-1357.