Location: Food and Feed Safety Research
Project Number: 3091-32000-031-00-D
Project Type: Appropriated
Start Date: Jan 3, 2011
End Date: Jan 2, 2016
Objective 1: Conduct research on the differential host-pathogen interactions of Salmonella in human, chicken, and swine intestinal key host immune cells using emerging genomic technologies. Objective 2: Analyze and characterize both host and Salmonella proteins that are modulated in expression during infection using quantitative proteomics. Objective 3: Research on the molecular and cellular details of the host-microbe interactions will be used to identify virulence-associated microbial genes and host defense strategies. Identify potential intervention targets (e.g., host kinases) for Salmonella infections in food animals. Objective 4: Develop strategies for the reduction of foodborne pathogens by targeting the host innate immune system (by identifying the use of immunomodulatory antimicrobial or host-defense peptides) and targeting and identifying virulence factors. Sub-objective 4A: Molecular characterization of anti-infectives that target the host innate immune system to facilitate pathogen-specific immune responses. Sub-objective 4B: Develop a high-throughput assay to screen a series of commercial libraries of small molecules for their ability to inhibit virulence factors produced by S. typhimurium.
Objective 1: Utilize deep sequencing and mutagenesis technologies to dissect the differential host-pathogen interactions of Salmonella in human, chicken, and swine intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. Specifically, we will determine the differential transcriptome of S. Typhimurium in mammalian versus chicken epithelial cells and develop gene-deletion mutants of S. Typhimurium to elucidate the differential mechanisms of intestinal pathogenicity of S. Typhimurium in humans compared to chickens and swine. Objective 2: A newly described technique of purifying live Salmonella expressing green fluorescent protein from either infected tissues or cell cultures using flow cytometry will be used to analyze and characterize both host and Salmonella proteins that are modulated in expression during infection. Quantitative proteomics including conventional two-dimensional electrophoresis, difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE), and mass spectrometry will be used to facilitate accomplishment of this objective. Objective 3: Using a matched comparative model (Salmonella characterized by contrasting degrees of pathogenicity and/or gene-deletion mutants of S. Typhimurium), newly developed peptide arrays will be used for studying the kinome of chicken and swine intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. Cell lysates will be analyzed on a kinomics array containing 1,024 peptides derived from known phosphorylation sites annotated with reported upstream kinases. In addition, reverse chemical genetics will be used to identify host kinases that are essential in controlling intracellular Salmonella infections. This procedure will enable us to identify a class of kinases using selective chemical inhibitors of kinases with relevant biological activities to control in vitro and in vivo infections. Objective 4: We will develop a high-throughput assay to search for inhibitors of the Type 3 secretion systems. We will screen a series of commercial libraries of small molecules for their ability to inhibit type 3 secretion by S. Typhimurium. A systems approach will be employed to understand and characterize the host-pathogen interactions that are manipulated in food animals using novel therapeutic approaches with BT peptides and CpG oligonucleotides without engendering antimicrobial resistance. Microarray analyses of avian and porcine peripheral blood granulocytes and monocytes following treatment with BT peptides or CpG oligonucleotides will be performed. Using InnateDB, bioinformatic interrogation of gene ontology, signaling pathways and transcription factor binding sites will be undertaken; confirmation will be achieved experimentally by qRT-PCR and inhibitor studies of in vitro functional biological assays, and followed up by direct biochemical confirmation. Collectively, these will lead to substantial advances in understanding the complexity of signaling pathways and transcription factors involved in the responses to BT peptides and CpG modulation.