1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
The objective of this Annex is to continue the Centers for Wheat Quality and Pathology, co-located at the Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China and the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Wheat Genetics, Quality Physiology and Disease Research Laboratory located at Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States. Each Center will conduct research, develop scientific tools and technology, and introduce improved methods for enhancing the quality, utilization and disease resistance of wheat integrated with other human pursuits that socially and economically maintain livelihoods and protect the environment through information exchange, education and proactive extension services. This Annex is subject to the terms and conditions of the S & T Agreement and the Protocol. In the event of any conflict between the terms and conditions of the S & T Agreement or the Protocol and this Annex, the S & T Agreement and the Protocol shall govern.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Cooperation under this Annex may include, but is not limited to, the following topic areas: (1) Characterization of food products and their processing and consumer requirements, (2) Evaluation of germ plasm and genetic resources for end-use quality, stripe rust and other pathogen resistances, (3) Information Services and Technology Transfer: Assemble, manage and publish data and information resources for research, education and public service. To generate broad interest and increased activities, the Parties will, upon mutual consent, involve other interested government agencies and the scientific and business communities of both countries in cooperative programs, trade capacity-building activities, and scientific cooperation and exchanges in implementation of this Annex.
3. Progress Report
Ativities include several ARS and Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) funded collaborators. The ARS technical lead for the activity is Dr. Kay Simmons, Deputy Administrator, Crop Production and Protection, who coordinates a group ARS scientists who conduct research in cooperation with Chinese counterparts in support of the common goals of this annex. The annual Joint Working Group met in Yangling China on Feb 21-23, 2011 to review progress in this activity: 1) Wheat: DNA libraries and clones have been sent to Chinese collaborators for sequencing, and genomic resources have been constructed in China, that were used to identify genes required for pathogenicity of strip rust strains. Collaborative research has led to the identification of new genes for grain hardness, grain color, and milling quality and contrinuted to increasing wheat quality in both countries. 2) Maize: USDA has provided 25 inbred maize lines and their 5,000 progeny to the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science (CAAS). CAAS has prepared 12 inbred maize lines and their 2,000 progeny for USDA. The Chinese are preparing the seed and getting the final permission to ship the seed to the U.S.A. ARS has made plans to receive the CAAS inbred lines at the National Plant Genetics Resource Center, Ft. Collins, CO, and is applying for authorization from APHIS for quarantine grow-out by ARS, Mayaguez, PR. The CAAS will conduct managed stress drought trials in 2012 with the hybrid lines. Dr. Edward Buckler, ARS Ithaca is providing expertise on experimental design and visited the Chinese project and learned that the field trials have been expended from 3 to 11 very large field trials in China. The USDA will genotype the combined U.S. and the Chinese germplasm (37 lines/7,000 lines progeny) with uniforming high density genotyping. This research will greatly advance our knowledge of how maize diversity can enhance drought tolerance. Moreover, it will accelerate the development of maize varieties that can grown under conditions where ocassional drought is likely. This will make a more stable agricultural production system for both the U.S. and China. 3) Rice: Extensive research on genetic and genomic strategies to protect rice from disease and analysis of diverse rice genetic resources. Ongoing informal cooperations on examining molecular mechanisms of rice blast resistance, and to clone rice Ptr(t) gene, a critical component of rice blast. 4) Soybean: Dr. Don Ort, ARS Urbana, IL spent 2 months in China for collaborative project on optimizing crop canopy chlorophyll content for maximizing photosynthetic efficiency and yield. 5) Crop Pests: collaborative research is underway on Oriental Armyworm. A comprehensive review of Oriental Armworm migratory ecology conducted by CAAS scientists published in Chinese is being translated into English and prepared for publication.