1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
The objective of this Annex is to continue the Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection, co-located at the Northwest Sci-Tech University in Yangling, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China and the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory located in West Lafayette, Indiana, United States. Each Center will conduct research, develop scientific tools and technology, and introduce improved methods for soil and water conservation and environmental protection integrated with other human pursuits that socially and economically maintain livelihoods and protect the environment through information exchange, education and proactive extension services. This Annex is subject to the terms and conditions of the S & T Agreement and the Protocol. In the event of any conflict between the terms and conditions of the S & T Agreement or the Protocol and this Annex, the S & T Agreement and the Protocol shall govern.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Cooperation under this Annex may include, but is not limited to, the following topic areas: 1. Erosion and Sedimentation: including the study of wind, water, and gravity erosion processes, sediment transport, and deposition and quantifying their effects on landscape stability, water quantity, air and water quality, agriculture and the environment at scales ranging from farm fields to entire river basins. 2. Climate Change: including interactions with, plant responses, soil erosion, and environmental quality. Research will include local, regional and global scales. 3. Soil, Water and Environmental Conservation: including social, economic, and environmental factors that influence effective management for sustaining soil, water and environmental resources and using decision-support tools to predict the potential consequences of various management options. 4. Watershed Ecosystems: using models and indicators based on selected physical, chemical, and biological attributes to define watershed ecosystem health and determine the susceptibility of watersheds to climate variability. 5. Agriculture and Environment: Centers will quantify watershed productivity and water resource capacity affected by land use, vegetative cover and climate and develop farming practices to maximize water use efficiency and agricultural production while minimizing adverse local and off-site environmental impacts. Research will include demonstration projects. 6. Information Services and Technology Transfer: Assemble, manage and publish data and information resources for research, education and public service. To generate broad interest and increased activities, the Parties will, upon mutual consent, involve other interested government agencies and the scientific and business communities of both countries in cooperative programs, trade capacity-building activities, and scientific cooperation and exchanges in implementation of this Annex.
3. Progress Report
Cooperative activities have occurred involving six ARS locations: National Sedimentation Lab, Oxford, Mississippi; Engineering and Wind Erosion Research Unit, Manhattan, Kansas; Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Arizona; Cropping System Research Laboratory, Lubbock, Texas; Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, Oklahoma; ARS Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research Unit, Columbia, Missouri; and National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, West Lafayette, Indiana. Dr. Gary Heathman, NSERL, visited Shandong Agricultural University from Oct 18-Nov 5, 2010, hosted by Prof. Xia Liu, Dean of the Forestry College. He discussed current cooperative research, future joint research objectives, and gave lectures to the faculties and students and visited the Soil Erosion Monitoring and Prevention Station, Forest Ecological Research Station and the Huangqian and Jiu Xianshan Watersheds research facilities. Dr. John Zhang, GRL, recently developed 3-year cooperative agreements with Prof. Baoyuan Liu of Beijing Normal Uni (BNU) and Professors Mingyi Yang and Zhanbin Li of ISWC on the use of radionuclides for tracing soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation. Dr.'s Glenn Wilson and Robert Wells, NSL are advising a BNU graduate student, who began his thesis research in Mar 2010 funded by the China Scholarship Council. He is working at the National Sedimentation Laboratory for a two year period under the Joint PhD Training Program. Prof. Chunlai Zhang of China Center for Desert Research- BNU, visited EWERU, received training on the Wind Erosion Prediction System model, and participated in a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project with EWERU scientists. The ARS SWRC is currently hosting Prof. Yan Zhang from College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forest Uni, on a 6-month project to investigate the sensitivity of infiltration and runoff models to initial soil moisture in semi-arid environments. Dr. Diane Stott, NSERL, worked with Prof. Zhiqiang Wang on soil quality assessment with soils from different geographic locations and land uses in China. A manuscript has been developed for publication. ARS Soil Scientist, Chi-hua Huang, National Soil Erosion Research Lab, West Lafayette, Indiana, was invited by Prof. Jiaping Wu of ZheJiang University to visit China October 8-17, 2010. Dr. Huang participated in a National Non-Point Source Pollution and Control Technology Conference held at the ZheJiang University Campus. The conference was focused on issues and technologies in treating water pollution from agricultural production systems, including crop, animal productions and farm households and villages where untreated wastes are discharged directly into a stream.