1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
The objectives of this project include: (1) maintain a brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) colony; (2) evaluate currently registered insecticides against BMSB adults, nymphs, and/or eggs; and (3) evaluate alternative insecticides including those appropriate for conventional and organic orchards.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
The BMSB has emerged as an extremely destructive pest of tree fruit throughout the mid-Atlantic. Many compounds typically used as cover sprays in tree fruit management programs have not provided reliable control of BMSBs. The intent of this work will be to identify insecticides that are effective against BMSB in order to develop management programs that are effective against BMSB in tree fruit orchards.
3. Progress Report
Insecticide products currently registered for the use on fruit crops were evaluated in the laboratory bioassays for their toxicity against brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) overwintering adults. The BMSB adults were collected from various overwintering sites in Pennsylvania and Maryland, and taken to the laboratory. Collected BMSB adults were kept in a growth chamber at 25 C, 70 (± 5) % RH and 16:8 (D:N) light photoperiod until they started active feeding (usually about two to three weeks after field collection). Only laboratory conditioned adults were used for the insecticide bioassays. Adult BMSB were separated based on gender and grouped by five individuals. Each group was placed in a plastic 0.473 l (16.0 oz) clear plastic container supplied with a small piece of carrot (2 mm slice) as a source of food and moisture. Adult BMSB in six containers per gender (n=30 males or females) were separated and treated with a topical application of water solution of formulated insecticide. Each individual BMSB adult received 2 ul drop on the upper dorsal (just below pronotum, on the edge of scutellum) surface of the exoskeleton. The concentration of each insecticide solution was determined as equivalent of the recommended field rate of the product assuming application of 100 gal (378 l) of spray solution per acre (0.4 ha). A biological surfactant, Triton-X 100, was also added to each solution (1 ml of surfactant per 100 ml of solution). Water only plus surfactant was used as a control treatment. Treated BMSB individuals were kept in enclosed containers at 23 C and 16:8 photoperiod. The mortality of BMSB was assessed at 4, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after the application. During each evaluation, each individual insect was scored as either live, dead, or moribund. The moribund category includes individuals unable to move forward or backward in a coordinated manner but still able to respond to touch by a camel brush by moving legs or antennae. Close to 60 individual combination of various products/rates were tested up to date with some products being tested multiple times at various field rates or available formulations. The results of the bioassays were made available to stakeholders throughout a series of meetings and extension publications presented during the spring and summer of 2011. The ADODR has monitored activities through emails, site visits, and calls.