Location: Hard Winter Wheat Genetics Research2011 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
Develop elite hard winter wheat genotypes that incorporate multiple resistance genes that are effective against new African races of wheat stem rust.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Bread wheat germplasm lines with effective major gene and/or minor gene resistance against new African races of stem rust are being developed by USDA-ARS as well as many other institutions. These resistance donors will be crossed with multiple local elite breeding lines with high yield potential, grain quality, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Good stewardship of valuable new resistance genes requires that they not be exposed singly in commercial cultivars. Endemic stem rust resistance genes, such as Sr24, Sr36, or Sr1A.1R, while very useful against most races, are not effective against all African races, and are not sufficient protection for new resistance genes. Therefore, the goal is to combine two or more new major genes into elite backgrounds. Minor gene or adult plant resistance genes are recommended as a supplement to major gene resistance. Minor genes are expected to be much more durable and do not require special stewardship protocols. In order to produce commercially competitive varieties of the future, new stem rust resistance genes must be incorporated into a forward breeding program. In addition, a backcross breeding program is required both for parent-building and as a hedge if commercially acceptable resistant varieties are needed in the short term. Rapid breeding methods, such as doubled haploids, will be needed to achieve results as quickly as possible. Phenotypic selection for resistance using common North American races will be difficult in most backgrounds due to the high frequency of endemic stem rust resistance genes. Therefore, marker-assisted selection for new resistance genes will be necessary. Molecular markers are available or under development for virtually all new sources of stem rust resistance. Marker genotypes will be generated locally or in a high throughput facility at the USDA-ARS Regional Small Grains Genotyping Laboratory in Manhattan, KS. Resistance of advanced lines against African races of stem rust will be confirmed by field testing at cooperative research facilities in Kenya or at the USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory. Testing for agronomic traits, yield, and quality will be performed as usual by the breeding program.
3. Progress Report
In an attempt to transfer resistance to adapted South Dakota winter and spring wheat breeding lines and varieties, 55 crosses were made with a parental line expressing a source of resistance to Ug99 stem rust. Most crosses were made to adapted South Dakota spring wheat breeding lines or varieties, but some crosses were also made to South Dakota winter wheat varieties. We expect to use phenotyping and when possible, marker data to confirm the transfer of resistance to Ug99 to South Dakota adapted breeding lines and varieties. We will begin selection of resistant lines from populations and possibly hasten the development of homozygous lines by producing double-haploids from selected lines. Additional winter wheat crosses will be made with Ug99 resistant parents, and to augment the adaptation of populations, three-way crosses will be made between the F1s already produced and South Dakota adapted spring and winter wheat germplasm. Progress on this agreement is monitored by regularly discussing program goals and approaches in face-to-face meetings, by email and phone conferences, and by reviewing annual accomplishments reports.