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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Dawson, Georgia » National Peanut Research Laboratory » Research » Research Project #419837

Research Project: Systems to Assess, Monitor, and Preserve Peanut Quality and Safety

Location: National Peanut Research Laboratory

2015 Annual Report

1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
OBJECTIVE: 1. Determine spectral response characteristics (near infrared, visible, ultraviolet, and radio spectra) of in-shell and shelled peanuts related to various quality parameters such as oil chemistry, maturity, moisture content, protein. a. Develop a low cost NIR instrument utilizing discrete wavelengths in the near infrared, visible, or ultraviolet electromagnetic spectrum to measure oil chemistry, moisture content, protein, and maturity of in-shell and shelled peanuts. b. Develop techniques to utilize the dissipation of radio frequency energy of in-shell and shelled peanuts to determine pod density in damaged and undamaged peanut kernels. 2. Develop sensors, instrumentation, and equipment to measure peanut quality throughout post harvest processing from the farm to final product. a. Develop and test a prototype meter to measure kernel moisture content of intact in-shell peanuts. b. Compare a prototype x-ray imaging system to conventional grading methods to determine foreign material, loose shelled kernels, and kernel size distribution of farmer stock grade samples. 3. Develop peanut curing, handling, and storage systems to preserve peanut quality and reduce operating costs. a. Measure energy costs of current peanut curing systems. b. Develop strategies to eliminate mold growth in shelled peanuts using cold storage and transit to customers. 4. Reduce post harvest processing costs of peanuts for small-scale edible oil/biodiesel production. a. Develop appropriate scale shelling equipment for use with 130 kg/hr oil expeller. b. Optimize peanut kernel pre-processing to optimize oil expeller capacity, oil extraction, and subsequent transesterfication.

1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Using standard chemical and/or gravimetric procedures, moisture content (MC), total oil content (TOC), protein, and density of the unshelled peanut pods and shelled peanut kernels will be determined. Reflectance and absorbance of individual peanut pods and kernels in the NIR, visible, UV spectra will be measured using a spectrometer. Transmission of radio frequency (RF) individual and bulk samples of pods and kernels will be measured for comparison to density data. Statistical methods such as principal component analysis will be used to select appropriate wavelengths from the NIR, visible, UV, and RF spectra responsive to the desired properties. Calibration equations will be developed. Collaborative research with commercial partners will be conducted to develop an in-shell moisture meter and to reference data and test an x-ray imaging system for non-destructive peanut grading. Peanut samples of all market types will be obtained from across the U.S. peanut production region. Samples will be processed through the prototype instruments and the predicted moisture content and other grade factors will be predicted. The samples will then be processed using procedures accepted by the Federal-State Inspection Service to determine accepted grade factors, and the moisture content determined using an accepted gravimetric oven method. Measured grade factors including moisture content will be compared to the those determined using the x-ray imaging system and the in-shell moisture meter. Wagon and semi-trailer dryers at a commercial drying facility will be instrumented to measure dryer performance. Data will be analyzed comparing the performance of the conventional wagons to the semi-trailer dryers. Energy consumption, drying time, and the resulting single kernel moisture variation, milling quality, and seed germination will be measured and compared. Peanut grade factors, aflatoxin content, and seed germination will be measured before and after storage. The change in these peanut quality factors due to the storage type will be compared. Farmer stock peanuts will be processed in the pilot-scale NPRL Biodiesel Facility to determine the unit costs of on-farm production of biodiesel from peanut. Tests to combine unit operations, such as harvesting, cleaning, and shelling or develop small-scale in-line cleaning and shelling equipment to match the oil expeller capacity will be conducted to minimize the cost of processing peanuts for on-farm biodiesel production.

3. Progress Report:
Cooperative Research and Development Agreement partner developed a sensor to measure in-shell peanut kernel moisture content. Commercial prototype sensors were developed and deployed on a limited basis for field tests. A nationwide pilot project was repeated during the 2013 peanut harvest using Prototype X-ray imaging systems to grade farmer stock peanuts at nine peanut buying facilities from North Carolina to New Mexico. Grade factors (percent foreign material, loose shelled kernels, and kernel size distribution), measured using the x-ray imaging system were not significantly different than those measured using conventional grading methods. Conducted additional studies focusing on effect of breathability of flexible intermediate bulk containers and deterioration of peanut quality in cold storage. This project has reached its term date. Research will continue on new research project #6044-41430-006-00D.

4. Accomplishments
1. Non-destructive measurement of single peanut seed oil content. The first generation of a new peanut variety consists of a single seed which may or may not have the desired oil chemistry. Traditional techniques require destructive testing to determine the oil chemistry meaning that the new variety must be propagated for a second year without knowing whether or not the new variety contains the desired trait. ARS agricultural engineers at Dawson, GA developed a method to measure the oil content and the ratio of oleic to linoleic fatty acids that leaves the seed intact. If the seed contains the desired trait, it may then be used to propagate the new variety with the desired oil chemistry trait eliminating a year from the 8-10 years normally required to bring a new peanut variety to the market. This method also eliminates the time and labor required to grow enough seed without the desired oil characteristics for traditional testing.

2. Prototype in-shell moisture meter developed. Peanut moisture is critical to proper drying, safe storage, and optimal processing and consumes considerable time and labor throughout post harvest processing. Commercial partners and ARS engineers developed a prototype sensor to measure peanut kernel moisture without shelling the sample. Field calibrations and limited commercial testing during the fall 2013 peanut harvest identified modifications required prior to full scale commercial release.

3. Principles of radio frequency dielectric measurements. Principles of radio frequency dielectric measurements successfully adapted to measure moisture content of dried fruits and detect the presence of the pit (seed) remaining in fruit after being processed through equipment to remove the pits in a commercial processing environment.

4. The American Peanut Council changed the specifications for the breathability of flexible intermediate bulk containers (totes) for handling shelled peanuts based on research conducted during 2011, 2012, and 2013. Temperature and relative humidity were measured in filled totes immediately after filling through cold storage and transit to the manufacturer. Results showed that the risk of mold growth during cold storage and transit were reduced when the breathability of the top and side panels was the same.

Review Publications
Soloiu, V., Davoud, S., Muinos, M., Watson, C., Molina, G., Harp, S., Koehler, B., Heimberger, J., Janson, M., Butts, C.L. 2015. Performance of an IDI Engine Fueled with Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Formulated from Cotton Seeds Oils. International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants. doi: 10.4271/2015-01-0806.
Kandala, C., Rachaputi, R.C. 2013. Capacitance Sensor For Nondestructive Determination Of Total Oil Content In Nuts. Journal of Sensor Technology. 3:42-46.
Kandala, C., Avula, R., Tucker, J. 2013. Sensing the Moisture Content of Dry Cherries - A Rapid and Nondestructive Method. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 4:38-42.
Kandala, C., Govindadajan, K.N., Pupalla, N., Settluri, V., Reddy, R.S. 2013. Identification of wheat varieties with a parallel-plate capacitance sensor using fisher linear discriminant analysis. IEEE Sensors Journal. Available:
Settaluri, V.S., Kandala, C., Sundaram, J., Puppala, N. 2012. Peanuts and their nutritional aspects. Journal of Food Nutrition. 3:1644-1650. Available:
Sundaram, J., Kandala, C., Govindarajan, K.N., Subbiah, J. 2012. Sensing of moisture content in in-shell peanuts by NIR (Near Infra Red) reflectance spectroscopy. Journal of Sensor Technology. 2(1):107.
Reddy, S., Chandrika, K., Pavani, P.L., Bala Chaitnanya, T.V., Sandeep, V., Saradhi, V., Rao, P., Suraj, S., Kandala, C. 2014. A growth inhibitory model with SOx influenced effective growth rate for estimation of algal biomass concentration under flue gas atmosphere. Bioresource Technology. 152:283-291.
Ronda, R.R., Parapudi, P.L., Vamula, S., Tumma, S., Botlagunta, M., Settaluri, V.S., Lele, S., Sharma, S., Kandala, C. 2014. Optimization of medium components using orthogonal arrays for Linolenic acid production by Spirulina platensis. Korean Chemical Society. 31(10):1839-1844. doi: 10.1007/s11814-014-0082-7.