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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fargo, North Dakota » Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center » Cereal Crops Research » Research » Research Project #419732

Research Project: Enhancement of Hard Spring Wheat, Durum, and Oat Quality

Location: Cereal Crops Research

2015 Annual Report

1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Identify milling, baking, and pasta processing traits of experimental and advanced lines of hard spring and durum wheat that impact end-use quality and the overall development and release of new commercial cultivars of wheat. Identify specific biochemical components in wheat that are associated with end-use baking quality traits. More specifically, to develop rapid methods to characterize proteins, which are initially important for predicting end-use quality; to determine the variation in free asparagine content in wheat, which is an important precursor for the formation of carcinogenic acrylamide during bread baking and toasting; and to identify the efficacy and impact of sulfur fertilization on end-use baking quality of hard spring wheat. Optimize methodologies for the extraction and analysis of soluble oat fiber components; determine environmental variation in the quantity and quality of ß-glucan as characterized in the first objective in newly developed high ß-glucan cultivars and other oat cultivars; and determine relationships between oil concentration and ß-glucan concentration in segregating crosses for these traits, as to how each affects groat breakage during dehulling.

1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Approximately 4000 hard spring and 1000 durum wheat experimental lines will be submitted by Federal, State, and private breeders, and special interest groups on an annual basis and evaluated for end-use quality. Wheat will be obtained from different generations of development in specific breeding programs, which will include early-generation, preliminary, and advanced lines and include commercial cultivars as controls. Measureable end-use quality traits include test weight, size, seed weight, sprout damage, physical evidence of disease, and protein and ash content; milling performance as a function of flour and semolina yield; flour and semolina color, protein, and ash content; dough strength properties; bread baking quality; and pasta processing quality. The Fargo Genotyping Laboratory will identify quantitative trait loci regions associated with end-use quality, primarily kernel and dough strength traits on selected hard spring wheat samples. Research will be conducted on the rapid characterization of protein extracts from wheat and flour by testing two different protein extraction methods. Variation in free asparagine content in wheat lines will be measured. The efficacy and impact of sulfur fertilization on end-use baking quality of hard spring wheat, specifically protein composition and amino acid profiles, will be determined as a function of dough strength characteristics. To develop optimized methodologies for the extraction of beta-glucan from oats, samples of oats will be obtained from replicated plots grown in diverse environments over several years. The newly developed methods for the analysis of soluble fiber quality will be used to determine how environment might affect the quality and concentration of beta-glucan, especially in newly developed high beta-glucan cultivars. Beta-glucan effects on milling quality of oats will also be tested. Because beta-glucan is in the cell walls of oats, it is thought to provide a strengthening effect, which reduces groat breakage during dehulling. However, high oil in oats also seems to prevent groat breakage, and currently breeders have been unable to separate the traits of high oil and high beta-glucan in oats. A collaborating genetics program has developed populations of recombinant inbred lines from oat crosses designed to be segregating for high oil and high beta-glucan. We will evaluate the phenotypes of these lines and test their behavior during dehulling to determine the relative roles of oil and beta-glucan in preventing groat breakage during oat milling.

3. Progress Report:
This is the final report for Project 3060-43440-011-00D, which has been replaced by Project 3060-43440-014-00D. Please refer to the latter project for future reports. The Hard Red Spring Wheat Quality Laboratory (WQL) has analyzed physical and biochemical quality traits of approximately 3000 samples of hard spring and durum wheat every year. Samples were submitted by private and public wheat breeders involved in wheat germplasm improvement and by scientists involved in gene mapping to identify quantitative trait loci associated with end-use quality traits. The WQL provided over 40 different tests related to wheat kernel characteristics, milling performance, and flour, semolina, dough, baking, and spaghetti processing quality. This program contributed to the release of three hard spring wheat cultivars from the University of Minnesota, four hard spring wheat cultivars from South Dakota State University, one mapping population from the University of Minnesota, and one winter durum wheat cultivar from Virginia Tech during the last five years. In cooperation with the Wheat Quality Council (WQC), approximately ten experimental lines of hard spring wheat that were grown at up to 5 locations have been evaluated along with check cultivars every year. The WQL tested each line for kernel, milling, flour, dough, and bread-baking quality traits, coordinated baking quality test results from independent public and private testing laboratories, and analyzed the data. Results were published, presented, and discussed at the annual meeting of the WQC. Interactions with the WQC serve as a means to obtain industry feedback on the milling and baking quality traits of advanced experimental lines of wheat being considered for release into commercial production. A 2013 variety survey showed that all of the top five HS wheat cultivars planted in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota were tested by the WQC program. Research regarding the effects of protein molecular weight distribution (MWD) on bread-making characteristics of hard spring wheat was continued. We improved the speed of size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) for analysis of protein MWD and identified protein fractions that had significant associations with quality characteristics. This information can contribute to rapid characterization of protein for quality evaluation of a large number of hard spring wheat samples. Flour samples of hard spring wheat genotypes grown in North Dakota and Minnesota were also analyzed by SE-HPLC and evaluated by UV spectroscopy for three years. The data obtained from this research is currently being evaluated to develop prediction models of quality traits and to assess effects of genotype and growing environment on protein MWD parameters and their associations with wheat quality traits using statistical and multivariate data analysis methods. Research also was performed to assess the suitability of SE-HPLC for quality evaluation of durum semolina using semolina samples that were milled from 13 durum genotypes grown at 7 locations over a three year period in North Dakota. Firmness of cooked pasta is an important quality characteristic for durum wheat, and this research identified protein fractions that had significant effects on firmness of cooked pasta. The SE-HPLC data is being further analyzed to assess possible effects of genotype and environment on protein SE-HPLC parameters and their associations with durum wheat quality characteristics. UV spectroscopy data was also collected and will be evaluated for durum wheat quality evaluation as part of the next project. Altogether, this information can contribute to more rapid quality evaluation of durum wheat breeding lines. The segregation of low asparagine wheat genotypes is important to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide content in baking products. We identified significant variation in free asparagine concentration for flour mill streams, hard spring wheat genotypes damaged by pre-harvest sprouting, and durum translocation lines. Free asparagine concentration was also analyzed for hard spring wheat genotypes collected from North Dakota and Minnesota for three years, and the data are being statistically analyzed to investigate the variation in free asparagine among hard spring wheat genotypes. The information obtained is important to millers in blending of flour mill streams and to breeders in selection of wheat genotypes with low asparagine concentration, which may contribute to reducing carcinogenic acrylamide in baked products. An investigation into the effect of sulfur fertilization on quality characteristics of hard spring wheat genotypes was initiated using six wheat genotypes that were grown at three different levels of sulfur fertilization at three locations in MN. The wheat samples are currently being analyzed for milling and baking quality, and the data will be statistically analyzed to assess the effect of sulfur fertilization on protein, free asparagine, and quality characteristics. Wheat kernel vitreousness is an important grading characteristic in the U.S., and therefore the effect of kernel vitreousness on milling and breadmaking quality in hard red spring wheat was investigated. Data analysis indicated that wheat quality characteristics are mainly associated with protein composition related to molecular weight distribution, and kernel vitreousness is a good supplementary trait to protein for evaluation of milling and breadmaking quality characteristics such as break flour yield and baking water absorption. The solvent retention capacity (SRC) test measures the ability of flour to retain a set of four solvents as related to intrinsic flour constituents. When the suitability of the SRC test for quality assessment of hard red spring wheat flour was examined, we identified a discrepancy for the association between SRC parameters, protein fractions analyzed by size-exclusion HPLC, and breadmaking characteristics that could help segregation of HRS wheat flour samples for breadmaking quality. Pasta fortification with non-traditional ingredients was investigated with the purpose of offering healthier alternatives to consumers. Spaghetti samples that were made from traditional and non-traditional formulations, including whole wheat flour and flaxseed flour, were analyzed for cooking quality and biochemical components. Among protein fractions, high levels of a protein fraction called glutenin polymers and low levels of the albumin and globulin fractions were identified to have association with low cooking loss and weight, and high firmness for the cooked non-traditional spaghetti. This research provides novel information on the influence of biochemical components on cooking quality of nontraditional pasta that may help formulate flour mixes for non-traditional pasta products. Intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium, IWG), possesses desirable agronomic traits, e.g., disease resistance, relatively large seed, and grain yield. As a perennial relative of wheat, IWG has good potential for development into a perennial grain crop. To investigate the variability of end-use quality among IWG genotypes, we evaluated protein composition and mixing properties for whole grain flour samples of 60 IWG genotypes. This research provided quality trait data and their associations with protein composition parameters for IWG genotypes grown in MN. Overall, this information will benefit the evaluation and improvement of quality and improve breeding efficiency for IWG.

4. Accomplishments
1. Development of improved wheat germplasm. Wheat producers, milling and baking industries, and overseas customers require high standards in the quality of wheat to meet their evolving needs. The Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory contributed wheat end-use quality data that helped lead to the development of improved wheat germplasm and subsequent release of new cultivars of spring and durum wheat bred for commercial production. Such new releases provide value to both farmers and industry through improved productivity or end-use quality.

Review Publications
Johnson, C.R., Thavarajah, D., Thavarajah, P., Payne, S., Moore, J., Ohm, J.-B. 2015. Processing, cooking, and cooling affect prebiotic concentrations in lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 38:106-111.
Whitney, K., Ohm, J.-B., Simsek, S. 2014. Addition of glucose oxidase for the improvement of refrigerated dough quality. Cereal Chemistry. 91(6):548-553.
Baasandorj, T., Ohm, J.-B., Manthey, F., Simsek, S. 2015. Effect of kernel size and mill type on protein, milling yield, and baking quality of hard red spring wheat. Cereal Chemistry. 92(1):81-87.
Sivapragasam, N., Thavarajah, P., Ohm, J.-B., Thavarajah, D. 2014. Surface properties of semi-synthetic enteric coating films: Opportunities to develop bio-based enteric coating films for colon- targeted delivery. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre. 4:139-143.
Collison, A., Yang, L., Dykes, L., Murray, S., Awika, J.M. 2015. Influence of genetic background on anthocyanin and copigment composition and behavior during thermoalkaline processing of maize. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 63:5528-5538.
Ibrahim, A., Rudd, J., Devkota, R., Baker, J., Sutton, R., Simoneaux, B., Opena, G., Herrington, R., Rooney, L., Dykes, L., Awika, J., Nelson, L.R., Fritz, A., Bowden, R.L., Graybosch, R.A., Jin, Y., Seabourn, B.W., Chen, X., Kolmer, J.A., St Amand, P., Bai, G., Duncan, R. 2015. Registration of 'TAM 305' hard red winter Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations. doi:10.3198/jpr2014.08.0054crc.
Cremer, J.E., Bean, S., Tilley, M., Ioerger, B.P., Ohm, J., Kaufman, R.C., Wilson, J.D., Innes, D., Gilding, E.K., Godwin, I.D. 2014. Grain sorghum proteomics: An integrated approach towards characterization of seed storage proteins in kafirin allelic variants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62:9819-9831.
Anderson, J.A., Wiersma, J.J., Linkert, G.L., Reynolds, S., Kolmer, J.A., Jin, Y., Dill-Macky, R., Hareland, G.A. 2015. Registration of 'Rollag' spring wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations. 9:201-207.
Glover, K.D., Hall, R.G., Jin, Y., Osborne, L.E., Ingemansen, J.A., Turnipseed, E.B., Hareland, G.A. 2015. Registration of 'Advance' Hard Red Spring Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations. 9:83-88.