Location: Peanut Research2011 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
1. Identify physiological drought responses to quantify water-use efficiency and other physiological characteristics that influence peanut yield and quality(aflatoxin contamination, flavor, maturity) and how these traits may differ among resistant and susceptive cultivars. 2. Characterize the physiological processes and genetic expression changes that impact a level of disease tolerance to Tomato spotted wilt virus in peanuts.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
The effectiveness of most production practices is evaluated at harvest by examining final yield. However, an understanding of the mechanisms that drive these final yield numbers is vital in determining the efficacy of production strategies and technologies. Most causal mechanisms are physiologically based; therefore, an examination of the physiological response to the production environment can help determine how production practices succeed or fail. Research will be conducted to investigate and improve the understanding of the physiological responses to environment, climate, and production practices that ultimately determine peanut yield and quality. Major emphasis will be directed towards examining the effects of irrigation type and amount on peanut physiological water use and evaluating wateruse efficiency under varying water environments. Emphasis will also be placed on plant and kernel susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination and tomato spotted wilt virus, and their effects on water use and other plant and kernel physical characteristics. A quality natural resource base is a vital factor in the viability of rural economies to sustain agricultural productivity. Available water supply is being stretched by rapidly growing demands for water by urban populations, irrigated agriculture, industry/energy sectors, and in-stream flow requirements. The dilemma for producers and local economies is finding solutions that help reduce irrigation and natural resource consumption while at the same time maintaining and or enhancing producer net returns.
3. Progress Report
Research plots were established on controlled rainout shelter to determine the level of drought resistance in different peanut germplasms. Plants were subjected to water deficit at various times during peanut development to determine critical stages of peanut growth that will affect peanut yield and quality. Ongoing evaluations of peanut breeding lines are being conducted. For the current crop year: 560 breeding progeny lines arranging from F2 to F7 are being grown in Headland, AL. Advanced line tests have been conducted at two locations in AL and GA in southeastern region. The cross between ‘C76-16’ and ‘Georgia Green’, two lines indentified as drought tolerant germplasm and supposed to have different alleles with different drought tolerant mechanisms, has been made in the greenhouse in 2011. The cross will provide a F2 progeny to proof our hypotheses and eventually to breed a new line with genes stacked. A mapping population is also grown in Headland, AL in 2011 for genotyping tomato spotted wilt virus, leaf spot, and other important agronomic traits. The data will be used to identify molecular markers associated with desirable traits that can be applied in peanut breeding program and to isolate the genes that can be used in peanut genetically-modified project.
Li, Y., Chen, C.Y., Knapp, S.J., Culbreath, A.K., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Guo, B. 2011. Characterization of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and genetic relationships within cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Peanut Science. 38:1-10.