Location: Plant Physiology and Genetics Research
Project Number: 5347-21000-011-00-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated
Start Date: Apr 1, 2010
End Date: Mar 25, 2013
Objective 1: Improve crop stress tolerance by determining, and developing technology to ameliorate, metabolic limitations by biological processes most sensitive to abiotic stress factors common in arid southwestern U.S. cropping systems. [NP 301, C4, PS 4A] Sub-objective 1a: Improve crop tolerance to heat stress by devising approaches to improve the ability of Rubisco activase to activate Rubisco at leaf temperatures above the optimum for photosynthesis. Sub-objective 1b: Develop new approaches to improve chilling tolerance by identifying metabolic mechanisms that limit biochemical/physiological processes most sensitive to chilling temperatures. Objective 2: Develop improved germplasm resources for abiotic stress resistance and fiber quality in Gossypium barbadense and G. hirsutum utilizing and integrating classical and biotechnology-based methodologies. [NP 301, C3, PS 3C] Sub-objective 2a: Develop improved germplasm resources for abiotic stress resistance and fiber quality in G. hirsutum utilizing and integrating classical and biotechnology-based methodologies. Sub-objective 2b: Develop improved germplasm resources for abiotic stress resistance and fiber quality in G. barbadense utilizing and integrating classical and biotechnology-based methodologies.
The genetic potential of cotton, and crop species in general, for producing of abundant high quality economic yield is severely compromised by specific abiotic stresses, like temperature and water, that are endemic to the arid-southwestern U.S. In addition, early season chilling stress impacts yield by stunting growth and delaying planting date. The negative impact of these stresses is likely to intensify as the global climate changes and water availability becomes more limiting. The mission of this research unit is to use a multidisciplinary approach to improve stress tolerance and yield in cotton. Fundamental approaches that integrate physiology, biochemistry, biotechnology and classical plant breeding will be used to identify and modify the response of cotton to environmental stress. Through this research, new sources of cotton germplasm will be developed with improved stress tolerance, as well as higher fiber quality and enhanced yield. The basic biochemical strategies developed for improving stress tolerance in cotton will have broad application to the variety of crop plants cultivated in arid environments. BSL-1, App #P-3-98-1 3/4/98; Recert. 2/1/05. Replaces 5344-21000-008-00D (3/06) and 5347-21000-009-00D (3/10).