1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
Numerous studies, using a wide variety of species, have been conducted to reduce/eliminate fish meal from aquaculture feeds. However, variability in sources and inadequate chemical characterization of dietary ingredients has been cited as primary limitations when comparing results from these various studies. Recently, the Plant Products in Aquafeeds Working Group (PPA) developed a Strategic Plan to advance the development of fish meal free diets through improved research coordination. A primary objective of goal number one of that strategic plan is the standardization of feed input compounds used in research studies. Standardization of feed ingredients is complicated by the fact that the small ingredient quantities needed by most research groups limits their ability to obtain consistent commercial products. Additionally, it is generally cost prohibitive for individual researchers to fully characterize both the nutrient and anti-nutrient profiles of each ingredient used in experimental feeds. For these reasons, a pilot program is proposed to address these needs and provide this service for the research community.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Through this new program, small quantities (~25 kg/ ingredient/shipment) of characterized ingredients will be made available to interested researchers. Each ingredient will be supplied with an analysis of nutrients (proximate composition, and amino acids) and anti-nutrients (specific anti-nutrients dependant on ingredient). These analyses will include but are not limited to; ): trypsin inhibitor activity (ISO 14902) (AOCS, 1983); stachyose, raffinose, and oligosaccarides concentrations were determined using HPLC and a calcium column; group A saponins were separated and quantified using methods described by Shiraiwa et al ( 1991a); group B saponins were separated and quantified using non-starch polysaccrides including ADF, NDF crude fiber. All ingredients will be characterized using consistent protocols. Commercial sources of soybean meal and soy protein concentrate will be used and will be donated by the supplier or alternatively one of the collaborators. The only obligations of receiving the various ingredients will be the acknowledgement of the sponsors as the ingredient source and providing all sponsors with a reprint of any manuscripts published using these ingredients. A four layered approach to developing widespread participation in the program will be used. First, a 20 minute presentation detailing the project will be given at during the Alternative Feeds Special Symposium at Aquaculture America in San Diego, March 2010. Second, the program will be described on three websites including Aquafeed.com, the USDA Trout-Grains Project, and USFWS Bozeman Fish Technology Center. Third a project description will be sent to all members of the Plant Protein in Aquafeeds Working Group which includes many international contacts. Lastly, a poster describing the project will be presented at the 14th International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding in Quindao, China, May 2010. Documents Reimbursable with United Soybean Board. Log 41094.
3. Progress Report
This project relates to objective 3 of the parent project, “Determine nutritional value of alternative ingredients (protein, lipid, energy) and develop practical feed formulations for improved strains of fish”. This project is entitled a “Pilot Program to Characterize Feed Ingredients for the Development of Plant based Aquaculture Feeds”, and feed ingredients have been obtained and analyzed for nutrients and anti-nutrients. Ingredients have been provided too many research institutions around the world and the project has been extended for another year. The concept is for researchers evaluating alternative ingredients to fish meal to use ingredients from the same lots that have been fully characterized for nutrients and anti-nutrients. This way results among different institutions and species might be more comparable. These efforts should further the development of alternative feeds and ingredients assisting in achieving objective 3. Communication and coordination was achieved through frequent emails and phone conversations.