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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Small Grains and Potato Germplasm Research

2013 Annual Report

1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Numerous studies, using a wide variety of species, have been conducted to reduce/eliminate fish meal from aquaculture feeds. However, variability in sources and inadequate chemical characterization of dietary ingredients has been cited as primary limitations when comparing results from these various studies. Recently, the Plant Products in Aquafeeds Working Group (PPA) developed a Strategic Plan to advance the development of fish meal free diets through improved research coordination. A primary objective of goal number one of that strategic plan is the standardization of feed input compounds used in research studies. Standardization of feed ingredients is complicated by the fact that the small ingredient quantities needed by most research groups limits their ability to obtain consistent commercial products. Additionally, it is generally cost prohibitive for individual researchers to fully characterize both the nutrient and anti-nutrient profiles of each ingredient used in experimental feeds. For these reasons, a pilot program is proposed to address these needs and provide this service for the research community.

1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Through this new program, small quantities (~25 kg/ ingredient/shipment) of characterized ingredients will be made available to interested researchers. Each ingredient will be supplied with an analysis of nutrients (proximate composition, and amino acids) and anti-nutrients (specific anti-nutrients dependant on ingredient). These analyses will include but are not limited to; ): trypsin inhibitor activity (ISO 14902) (AOCS, 1983); stachyose, raffinose, and oligosaccarides concentrations were determined using HPLC and a calcium column; group A saponins were separated and quantified using methods described by Shiraiwa et al ( 1991a); group B saponins were separated and quantified using non-starch polysaccrides including ADF, NDF crude fiber. All ingredients will be characterized using consistent protocols. Commercial sources of soybean meal and soy protein concentrate will be used and will be donated by the supplier or alternatively one of the collaborators. The only obligations of receiving the various ingredients will be the acknowledgement of the sponsors as the ingredient source and providing all sponsors with a reprint of any manuscripts published using these ingredients. A four layered approach to developing widespread participation in the program will be used. First, a 20 minute presentation detailing the project will be given at during the Alternative Feeds Special Symposium at Aquaculture America in San Diego, March 2010. Second, the program will be described on three websites including, the USDA Trout-Grains Project, and USFWS Bozeman Fish Technology Center. Third a project description will be sent to all members of the Plant Protein in Aquafeeds Working Group which includes many international contacts. Lastly, a poster describing the project will be presented at the 14th International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding in Quindao, China, May 2010. Documents Reimbursable with United Soybean Board. Log 41094.

3. Progress Report:
This project relates to the above mentioned parent project since both projects are focused on the development of plant based feeds for fish. Having different laboratories use ingredients from the same lot makes the results more comparable thus allowing for faster progress in understanding the limitations and strengths of plant-based feeds in aquaculture. Soybean meal, soy protein concentrate and corn protein concentrate have been fully characterized for nutrient and anti-nutrient content. These feed ingredients were distributed to 17 laboratories in the U.S. and two in Indonesia during the life of this project. The goal of the research projects for which the ingredients were used was in each case to replace fish meal with plant protein specifically soy products. Results of the studies are being published.

4. Accomplishments

Last Modified: 10/19/2017
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