Integrated Aquatic Animal Health Strategies
Aquatic Animal Health Research
2013 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Objective 1 - Determine population and strain responses to vaccines and infectious pathogens (e.g., Edwardsiella ictaluri, Flavobacterium columnare), using genetically characterized fish.
Objective 2 - Determine characteristics of coinfections and their role in disease processes in aquaculture and aquatic environments.
Objective 3 - Identify microbial pathogen genes and pathways critical for host pathogenesis and immunity.
Objective 4 - Develop and validate new and novel pathogen detection tests for Edwardsiella ictaluri, Flavobacterium columnare, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae using genomic, proteomic, microbiological and immunological approaches.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Fish farmers continue to identify disease as a significant negative impact on profitability. Therefore, the goal of this project is to improve fish health and reduce this negative impact. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we will accomplish four objectives that address important questions about bacterial diseases that affect the catfish (e.g., Edwardsiella ictaluri, Flavobacterium columnare) and tilapia (e.g., Streptococcus iniae, S. agalactiae) industries. Studies will be conducted at the gene, protein, individual, and/or population levels. Questions remain about some barriers to optimum vaccine efficacy in the field and about the responses of current and future strains of fish to pathogens and vaccines. Therefore, Objective 1 will determine population and strain responses to vaccines and infectious pathogens (e.g., E. ictaluri, F. columnare), using genetically characterized fish. In most intensive aquaculture production systems, multiple pathogens are present and result in mortality. Objective 2 will determine characteristics of coinfections and their role in disease processes in aquaculture and aquatic environments. Objective 3 will identify microbial pathogen genes and pathways critical for host pathogenesis and immunity that will provide important information for future vaccine development. Objective 4 will develop and validate new and novel pathogen detection tests for E. ictaluri, F. columnare, S. iniae and S. agalactiae so that these can be used in fish health management. The results from this work will contribute to present and future vaccine development, provide useful management information about farm use of vaccines and coinfections, and leverage development of future catfish strains being developed for the industry.
3. Progress Report:
Substantial progress was made to evaluate channel catfish families that were selectively bred for resistance against Edwardsiella (E.) ictaluri for susceptibility to Flavobacterium (F.) columnare infection. Data demonstrated that there may be a negative correlation between the resistance of catfish to F. columnare and their resistance to E. ictaluri. Substantial progress was made on the co-infection of Gyrodactylus and F. columnare. Research results revealed that the infection of Gyrodactylus increased the susceptibility of fish to infection of F. columnare. Substantial progress was made to determine factors influencing the vectoring ability of parasites for bacterial pathogens. The influence of 20 different lectins on the ability to affect the attachment of bacteria E. ictaluri to the theront Ichthyophthirius (Ich) was evaluated. Substantial progress was made to expand proteomic work for a large panel of F. columnare isolates for comparative proteomics. No clear association between virulence to tilapia and genomovar type of these isolates were found. Significant progress was made to identify immune genes of channel catfish in response to infection or vaccination of Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila. Significant progress was made to characterize the extracellular proteins of A. hydrophila. Significant progress was made to develop and evaluate attenuated vaccines to protect catfish and tilapia against Edwardsiella tarda and A. hydrophila. Attenuated vaccines have been developed and invention disclosures have been filed. Significant progress was made to develop and evaluate recombinant Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccine against the protozoan parasite Ich. The efficacy studies on these recombinant DNA vaccines were determined.
Yeh, H., Klesius, P.H. 2012. Construction, expression and characterization of eleven putative flagellar apparatus genes of Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73. Journal of Fish Diseases. 35:853-860.
Yeh, H., Klesius, P.H. 2012. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) tetraspanin membrane protein family: Identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of tetraspanin 3 and tetraspanin 7 (CD231) transcripts. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry Journal. 38:1553-1563.
Yeh, H., Klesius, P.H. 2013. Changes of serum myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide in the early stage of Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Journal of Fish Diseases. 36:441-446.
Lafrentz, B.R., Lapatra, S.E., Shoemaker, C.A., Klesius, P.H. 2012. Reproducible challenge model to investigate the virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 101:115-122.
Xu, D., Shoemaker, C.A., Zhang, Q., Klesius, P.H. 2012. Naturally infected channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) concurrently transmit Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Edwardsiella ictaluri to naive channel catfish. Aquaculture. 376-379:133-136.
Xu, D., Klesius, P.H. 2013. Comparison of serum antibody responses and host protection against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis between channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 39:1356-1359.
Gliniewicz, K., Plant, K.P., Lapatra, S.E., Lafrentz, B.R., Cain, K., Snekvik, K.R., Call, D.R. 2012. Comparative proteomic analysis of virulent and rifampicin attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Journal of Fish Diseases. 35:529-539.
Bebak, J.A., Garcia, J.C., Darwish, A.M. 2012. Effect of copper sulfate on Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings. North American Journal of Aquaculture. 74(4):494-498.
Lafrentz, B.R., Shoemaker, C.A., Booth, N.J., Peterson, B.C., Ourth, D.C. 2012. Spleen index and mannose-binding lectin levels in four channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus families exhibiting different susceptibilities to Flavobacterium columnare and Edwardsiella ictaluri. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 24:141-147.
Xu, D., Klesius, P.H., Bosworth, B.G., Chatakondi, N.G. 2012. Susceptibility of three strains of blue catfish to parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Journal of Fish Diseases. 35(12):887-895.
Shoemaker, C.A., Lafrentz, B.R., Klesius, P.H. 2012. Bivalent vaccination of sex reversed hybrid tilapia against Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio vulnificus. Aquaculture. 354-355:45-49.
Wei Pridgeon, Y., Klesius, P.H. 2012. Major bacterial diseases in aquaculture and their vaccine development. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources. 7(048):1-16.
Qiao, G., Jang, I., Won, K., Woo, S., Xu, D., Park, S. 2012. Pathogenicity comparison of high and low virulent strains of Vibrio scophthalmi in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fisheries Sciences. 79:99-109.
Wei Pridgeon, Y., Klesius, P.H., Aksoy, M.Y. 2013. Attempt to develop live attenuated bacterial vaccines by selecting resistance to gossypol, proflavine hemisulfate, novobiocin, or ciprofloxacin. Vaccine. 31:2222-2230.
Shoemaker, C.A., Martins, M.L., Xu, D., Klesius, P.H. 2012. Effects of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis parasitism on the survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Parasitology Research. 111(5):2223-2228.
Darwish, A.M., Bebak, J.A., Schrader, K. 2012. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male. Journal of Fish Diseases. 35:637-647.
Qiao, G., Lee, D., Woo, S., Li, H., Xu, D., Park, S. 2012. Microbiological characteristics of Vibrio scophthalmi isolates from diseased olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Fisheries Sciences. 78(4):853-863.
Wei Pridgeon, Y., Aksoy, M., Klesius, P.H., Srivastavae, K., Reddy, G. 2012. Attenuation of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila with novobiocin and pathogenic characterization of the novobiocin-resistant strain. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 113:1319-1328.
Qiao, G., Park, S., Xu, D. 2012. Clinical, hematological and biochemical alterations in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus following experimental infection by Vibrio scophthalmi. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 15(3):233-239.
Wei Pridgeon, Y., Mu, X., Klesius, P.H. 2013. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the novobiocin and rifampicin resistant Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine strain AL09-71 N+R compared to its virulent parent strain AL90-71. Veterinary Microbiology. 165:349-357.
Wei Pridgeon, Y., Klesius, P.H., Garcia, J.C. 2013. Identification and virulence of Chryseobacterium indologenes isolated from diseased yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Journal of Applied Microbiology. 114:636-643.
Wei Pridgeon, Y., Klesius, P.H., Song, L., Zhang, D., Kojima, K., Mobley, J. 2013. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak. Veterinary Microbiology. 164:336-343.
Wei Pridgeon, Y., Li, Y., Aksoy, M.Y., Song, L., Klesius, P.H., Srivastava, K.K., Reddy, P. 2013. Fitness cost, gyrB mutation, and absence of phosphotransferase system fructose specific IIABC component in novobiocin-resistant Streptococcus iniae vaccine strain ISNO. Veterinary Microbiology. 165:384-391.