Location:2010 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
To maintain a high standard of integrity in data collection systems providing data for the National Dairy Genetic Evaluation Program (GEP) database; to provide data to AIPL for use in research and education, including the development of effective procedures for estimating the genetic merit of dairy animals; to provide data and summaries of information to research and extension personnel, and to others for educational purposes as appropriate; to improve the genetic merit and production efficiency of U.S. dairy cattle; and to enhance the world market competitiveness of the U.S. dairy industry.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
It will be the responsibility of both parties to ensure the integrity of the data submitted by the Cooperators for inclusion in the GEP datatbase and to maintain the credibility of the GEP by establishing quality standards for data submitted to the GEP.
3. Progress Report
This project is a continuation of 1265-31000-096-05M, which terminated on December 31, 2009. The project is related to in-house objectives 1 (collect genotypes and new phenotypes to improve accuracy and comprehensiveness of national dairy database), 2 (characterize phenotypic measures of dairy practices; provide industry with information for determining impact of herd management decisions on profitability), 3 (improve accuracy of prediction of economically important traits currently evaluated; determine merit and potential for developing genetic predictions for new traits; investigate methods to incorporate high-density genomic data), and 4 (investigate economic value of traits to combine evaluations most efficiently to select for healthy animals capable of producing quality milk at low cost in many environments). Test-herd data continued to be used to compare procedural differences among processing centers. National database data were provided by processing centers (yield, health, pedigree, reproduction), breed registries (pedigree, genotypes), and artificial-insemination organizations (pedigree, reproduction, genotypes). Database enhancements included 1) Mexican cow records; 2) heifer and cow conception rates for cows; 3) update of genetic bases for all traits; 4) updated economic values of all traits for net merit, cheese merit, and fluid merit genetic-economic indexes; 5) Brown Swiss genotypes from Switzerland; 6) breed-specific markers for genotype checks; 7) haplotypes for imputing genotypes; 8) an indicator to indicate genotype imputation for cows; 9) a web query to track genotype status; 10) polygenic effects for genomic evaluation; and 11) adjusted genomic evaluations of cows for yield and component percentage traits to reduce overestimation. Information available through the Laboratory web site in Jan., Apr., and Aug. 2010 included 1) official genetic evaluations for yield and fitness traits and economic indexes for almost 20 million U.S. dairy cattle; 2) multinational bull evaluations and conversion formulas; 3) updated graphic displays of phenotypic and genetic trends for yield and fitness traits; and 4) bull fertility rankings. Also available through the web site were triannual interim evaluations for progeny-test bulls and genetic evaluations for yield (semiannual) and conformation (annual) for U.S. dairy goats. Genomic evaluations began to be distributed to industry cooperators monthly (rather than bimonthly) in April 2010 for Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss. Calving-ease and stillbirth evaluations for bulls were released triannually to the National Association of Animal Breeders for distribution. Scientific manuscripts (8), scientific abstracts (18), conference presentations (9), and popular press articles (21) related to the National Dairy Genetic Evaluation Program were published. Monitoring activities included participation by ARS scientists and information technology staff in 2 Cooperator meetings with dairy industry representatives as well as e-mail and phone calls.