1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
The objective of this Annex is to establish the Sino-U.S. Centers for Efficient Irrigation, co-located in the Department of Irrigation and Drainage, China Institute of Hydropower and Water Resources Beijing, China, and the Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, in Maricopa, Arizona, United States. Each Center will conduct research, develop scientific tools and technology, analyze policies and management practices, and introduce improved technologies, policies and management practices that increase irrigation delivery efficiency and water productivity in agriculture, water quality, agricultural production and farm incomes. This Annex is subject to the terms and conditions of the S & T Agreement and the Protocol. In the event of any conflict between the terms and conditions of the S & T Agreement or the Protocol and this Annex, the S & T Agreement and the Protocol shall govern.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Cooperation under this Annex may include, but is not limited to, the following topic areas: 1. Irrigation Efficiency: including research into the efficiency of conveyance and measurement technology, irrigation management practices, field-level water application practices, and drainage infrastructure. 2. Water Productivity in Agriculture: including the implications of irrigation timing on crop water requirement and crop production, conjunctive application of water and fertilizers, and other factors that affect the productivity of water in agriculture. 3. Irrigation Technology Adoption: including research into the determinants of adopting water-saving irrigation technology and practices and the effects adoption has on water use, crop production, and water quality. 4. Irrigation and Climate Change: including research into the approaches in adapting to climate change in irrigation water management and also mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gas buildup. 5. Waste Water Reuse: including research into the effectiveness of using treated wastewater in agriculture and the implications of using wastewater in agriculture. 6. Drainage and salinity control: including research into approaches and technologies for drainage and salinity control, reuse of brackish water. 7. Institutional Reform and Water Pricing: including irrigation district management reforms (such as water user associations and canal contracting), the effects of water pricing policies on water use, crop production and farm incomes, and the effectiveness of alternative polices to control groundwater withdrawals. 8. New technology application: including research into application of new technologies in irrigation water management, such as remote sensing, canal automation, decision-making support system. 9. Information Services and Technology Transfer: assemble, manage and publish data and information resources for research, education and public service. To generate broad interest and increased activities, the Parties will, upon mutual consent, involve other interested government agencies and the scientific and business communities of both countries in cooperative programs, trade capacity-building activities, and scientific cooperation and exchanges in implementation of this Annex.
3. Progress Report
At the 8th Joint Working Group of the Protocol between USDA and MOST Yangling, China in February, 2011 Under Secretary Woteki and Vice Minister Zhang signed Annex X to the Protocol officially recognizing the US-China joint research center for efficient irrigation. Cooperation on surface irrigation simulation – The Water Management and Conservation Unit at the Arid Lands Agricultural Research Center (ALARC) and Department of Irrigation and Drainage (IWHR) have a common interest in improving the efficiency of surface irrigation. Both have worked on recommendations for improving the layout and operation of surface systems. ALARC developed software (WinSRFR) which provides guidance for improving surface irrigation. Bai Meijian from IWHR visited Maricopa in August 2009 to gain experience with the WinSRFR software. She and ARS researcher, Dr. Eduardo Bautista, have ongoing cooperative research on determining surface-irrigation infiltration from soil data based on physically-based soil infiltration models. Discussion has started on conversion of WinSRFR to Chinese. Since the formal establishment of the Joint Center the project has developed a website in English and Chinese to communicate progress and opportunities under the project: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Business/docs.htm?docid=20679&page=1 and http://www.jceiuc.org/