1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
The objective of this Annex is to establish the Sino-U.S. Centers for Dairy Production and Processing, co-located at the Key Laboratory of Dairy Science, Ministry of Education, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin in China and the Dairy Forage Research Center (DFRC), Madison, Wisconsin, and the Dairy Processing and Products Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, Wyndmoor, PA in the United States. China and the United States maintain the Centers, principally to serve as the leading platform for joint Sino-U.S. collaborative dairy research. One of the expressed aims of the Centers is to solve problems to expand markets for milk and milk products via innovative knowledge and technology and to establish environmentally-benign dairy production and processing systems to enhance sustainable and competitive dairying. Each country’s Center coordinates, manages and staffs participation in the Sino-U.S. Centers. This Annex is subject to the terms and conditions of the S & T Agreement and the Protocol. In the event of any conflict between the terms and conditions of the S & T Agreement or the Protocol and this Annex, the S & T Agreement and the Protocol shall govern.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Cooperation under this Annex may include, but is not limited to, the following topic areas: 1. Dairy Production Technology: A systems research approach to producing and utilizing forage crops on dairy farms in China and the United States, maximizing the use of forage nutrients for milk production by the dairy cow, increasing milk yield and quality, exploring effective ways to reduce nutrients from manure that are potentially dangerous to water and air, and solving a growing problem of dairy waste management. 2. Dairy Science and Processing Technologies: Basic and applied research is conducted on the processing, preservation and storage of milk, dairy foods, and milk-based food ingredients to enhance their nutrition and health-promoting properties, quality, functionality, safety, and sustainability. Collaborative research may be conducted to develop processing methods to modify the levels of biologically active compounds in milk and milk products; evaluate the quality traits of specialty cheeses and relate flavor and texture to consumer preferences; develop sustainable strategies to lower the environmental impact of dairy operations but maintain the nutrition of milk; and, develop technologies to enhance health properties of modified milk protein products. Collaborative research in lactic acid bacteria genetics and biotechnology may also be conducted to identify dairy starter and probiotic cultures with improved and useful biocatalytic properties for dairy product manufacture; and to develop food grade microorganisms and their natural products to process quality, safe and nutritious dairy products.
3. Progress Report
At the 8th Joint Working Group of the Protocol between USDA and MOST Yangling, China in February, 2011 Under Secretary Woteki and Vice Minister Zhang signed Annex IX to the Protocol officially recognizing the Joint Center for Dairy Production. This joint center is to act as a bilateral research platform for engaging scientists and students in all aspects of dairy production as well as utilization of dairy products. Significant accomplishments this year include: 1) In 2007, a dairy nutrition project was begun involving a UW Ph.D. student who received his MS degree from the China Agricultural Univ. The initial study showed that supplementing methionine as isopropyl-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMBi) was as effective as rumen-protected methionine in lactating dairy cows. Feeding HMBi allowed similar milk and protein yields on 15.6% crude protein as on 16.8% crude protein in the diet; this dietary change increased N efficiency from 30 to 34% and also reduced urinary N excretion. A follow-up trial is being conducted to quantify effects of HMBi feeding on nutrient flows from the rumen. He has completed his course work and prelims and anticipates finishing all requirements for the PhD by June 30, 2011. In addition, a paper from his initial study is in press at the J. Dairy Science. 2) ARS-Wyndmoor, PA collaborated with Lihui Du, a graduate of NEAU, Harbin, and now with the College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing, University of Finance and Economics. Dr. Du recently completed a 2 year sabbatical, focusing on the production of antimicrobial peptides by lactic acid bacteria with potential for uses as natural food preservatives, and the molecular mechanism of peptide synthesis to improve production and extend the range of applications. Two manuscripts have been submitted to the Int. J. Food Microbiology and Food Control, respectively, and an additional three manuscripts are in preparation.