1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
To develop and integrate sustainable tephritid fruit fly management methods in areawide demonstration projects; to form long-term partnerships among federal, state, and the private sector. To transfer to growers economical and ecologically sound technologies to manage tephritid fruit flies on fruits and vegetables, and to enhance the export market. The objectives are to be met by the development and implementation of on-farm areawide pest management partnership demonstration in the Hawaiian islands.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Through cooperation with stakeholders and with the help of University, state, federal, and private research agencies, we plan to demonstrate and implement the use of one or more of the following technologies to reduce populations of the four (4) species of fruit flies that attack agricultural crops. 1) Mass-trapping/male annihilation, 2) bait sprays/bait stations, 3) augmentative parasite releases, and 4) sterile fly releases. Evaluation of the effectiveness of these technologies and cost-benefit analysis will be conducted to determine program success. Formerly 0500-00044-016-00D. (2/10).
3. Progress Report
This is the final report for the bridge project 0500-00044-029-00D that was put in place to allow for completion of one outstanding SCA (“Evaluation of SPLAT-MAT with Spinosad and Methyl Eugenol or Cue-Lure for Suppression or Eradication of Oriental and Melon Fruit Flies” - 0500-00044-029-01S) for the AWPM program that receives no more funds. This project will be continued for one additional year and then terminated. Additional details are available in project 0500-00044-016-00D. The Area-Wide Pest Management (AWPM) Program is one of the most important and heavily cited success stories at the Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center during the past 5 years. Technology development was done primarily through the Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research Unit and was the culmination of many years of research. The AWPM program promoted inter-institutional cooperation (ARS, University of Hawaii, and Hawaii Department of Agriculture) to help solve one of the most important agricultural problems in Hawaii for local farmers with a combination of sanitation, reduced risk insecticides, and biological control. It has been the recipient of seven major IPM awards for excellence. Some of the major accomplishments to date include: (1) Statewide adoptation by 2,747 users; 682 farms; and 16,785 acres. (2) Prior to this program, no chemicals were registered in the United States specifically for the suppression of fruit flies. The AWPM program was instrumental in obtaining the first Hawaii research permits and then assisted in the registration process GF-120 and methyl eugenol and cue-lure products with state and federal authorities. (3) Major economic contributions to agriculture in Hawaii and instigated the growing of a greater diversity of crops. In addition by allowing farmers to make significant cuts in pesticide use, the program helped improve Hawaii’s environment and sustain open space, which contributed to maintain the islands’ tourism. (4) A full cost-benefit analysis found that the AWPM program would create as much as a 32% return on an investment of $14 million over 15 years and that doesn’t count the substantial indirect benefits, such as increased agricultural employment, or environmental benefits that don’t have a direct dollar return. The success of the AWPM program had international impacts on fruit fly management, as many other countries are also facing similar problems. Researchers and officials from Australia, People’s Republic of China, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Island, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Reunion, Senegal, Kenya, Taiwan and Mexico, among others, have expressed interest in or adopted the program as a model for fruit fly suppression. For additional information on the HAWPM refer to report 0500-00044-016-00D.
1. Documentation of long distance movement of oriental fruit fly. Infestation of fruits and vegetables by the oriental fruit fly in an area may stop exportation of fruits and vegetables to other regions or countries unless some means are established to ensure that the flies are not introduced to recipient areas along with the produce. Establishment of infestation-free production areas or production areas where tephritid fruit fly populations are maintained below a specified low level (“low-prevalence zones”) could permit exportation, but one must know the risk of fruit fly immigration from source populations outside the production area. A Brigham Young University graduate student and scientist, in collaboration with ARS researchers at Hilo, HI, conducted a mark-release-recapture study that showed that oriental fruit flies can move distances between 2–11.4 km. Knowledge of these long distance movements is of value in planning dimensions of buffer zones that would be needed for the establishment of oriental fruit fly infestation-free or low-prevalence zones.
Froerer, K., Peck, S.L., Mcquate, G.T., Vargas, R.I., Jang, E.B., Mcinnis, D.O. 2010. Long distance movement of batrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidale in Puna, Hawaii: How far can they go?. American Entomologist. 56:88-94.