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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Research Project: IMPROVING PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY IN WARM WATER AQUACULTURE THROUGH WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Location: Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit

2013 Annual Report


1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
1. Develop and test novel equipment and strategies to increase gas exchange and the efficiency of fish production while minimizing equipment and energy costs. 2. Develop acoustic technology and methodologies to improve the production and profitability of aquaculture in the United States. 3. Determine effectiveness of new germplasm and novel aeration technologies on commercial scales.


1b. Approach (from AD-416):
We have made great strides in understanding the relationships between dissolved oxygen, feed consumption, feed conversion, growth, production and susceptibility to disease, and we will continue to learn more about the impacts of oxygen on fish health, development, growth, and production economics. However, we have learned enough to shift our focus to applications – development, testing and tech transfer of new equipment and techniques to improve oxygen management efficiency in both hatchery and pond systems. We havealso learned a good deal on the use of active SONAR systems to observe and quantify food sized and larger fish in the acoustically complex environment of commercial ponds. We will continue to improve our understanding of this field but will expand it to include other acoustic applications. Acoustic sounds, both from catfish and man-made sources, will be introduced into ponds to determine if the fish can be made to respond in a predictable, desirable manner to improve seining. One of the main objectives of CRIS 6402-31000-008-00D (Catfish Genetics, Breeding, and Physiology) is to “Initiate development of channel catfish and blue catfish germplasm with improved growth, yield, and esc resistance for eventual transfer to commercial producers”. This CRIS has been tasked with developing a procedure that will be used for future on-farm testing and preliminary commercial evaluation of new lines before full-scale release to the industry. Once in place, this model could also be used for assessment of new aeration or pond monitoring equipment, chemical treatments, vaccines, and algal control methods.


3. Progress Report:
The focus of this research project is to develop a more complete understanding of the impacts of water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO), on growth and production of catfish, and to develop new equipment or management strategies to utilize that information. The goal is to reduce the production costs for U.S. fish farmers, making them more competitive in a world economy and providing quality fish to U.S. consumers at a fair price. ARS scientists at Stoneville, MS, have completed development and testing of the see-saw incubator at a collaborating commercial catfish hatchery. This incubator is ready for commercial application and technology transfer efforts have been largely completed. A fourth year of research on DO requirements of hybrid catfish in ponds was completed and indicates that hybrid catfish consume more feed at lower DO concentrations than channel catfish, and should convert feed better in commercial ponds due to reduced mortality resulting from a shorter production cycle. Two studies are underway with hybrid catfish examining relative growth rates over a range of sizes and the comparative effects of fish density and DO concentration on growth and production. Work on development of the U-tube aerator has progressed. An air-lift type system was tested and was determined to be a more efficient means of moving water with the u-tube than other mechanical systems. A patent application for this device is now pending with the US Patent and Trademark Office. The u-tube has been scaled up and installed in an 8-acre pond at National Warmwater Aquaculture Center (NWAC) and the first year of testing under commercial fish densities has been completed. The new aerator will be evaluated in this commercial-scale setting for one additional year before expansion to planned on-farm trials. Other aquaculture engineering projects are underway and show promise. The water supply system at a commercial hatchery was redesigned to include a counter-current heat exchanger to reduce the cost of heating water. Early results indicate a possible savings of up to $500 per day or $22,500 per season in propane. Work has also begun on determining the most economical design for water-moving equipment for use in split-pond production systems. Thus, existing slow-rotating paddlewheels (SRP) are currently being evaluated for performance and reliability at NWAC. A selection program is underway in the Catfish Genetics Research Unit on several line of blue catfish, use for producing hybrid channel X blue catfish. Protocols have been developed and put in place for the periodic release of blue catfish to the industry. Work progressed on the use of sound to move fish in advance of seine nets to improve harvesting. Other means of evaluating the noise’s effectives on fish motion are being pursued in the summer of 2013 with one possibility being direct assessment on ponds slated for harvesting. Work continued on the use of a commercially available sonicator (a high amplitude acoustic source) to eliminate the Ram’s Horn snail, an intermediate host to trematodes that infect catfish. If successful, the use of chemical controls would be reduced or perhaps eliminated.


4. Accomplishments


Review Publications
Brown, T.W., Tucker, C.S. 2013. Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-pond aquaculture systems. North American Journal of Aquaculture. 75:153-158.

Torrans, E.L., Ott, B.D., Jones, R., Jones, R. 2013. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities. North American Journal of Aquaculture. 75(2):235-243.

Brown, T.W., Boyd, C.E., Chappell, J.A. 2012. Approximate water and chemical budgets for an experimental in-pond raceway system. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 43:526-537.

Goodwiller, B.T., Chambers, J.P. 2012. The potential use of ultrasound to control the trematode bolbophorus confusus by eliminating the ram's horn snail planorbella trivolvis in commercial aquaculture settings. North American Journal of Aquaculture. 74(4):485-488.

Kroger, R., Tucker, C.S. 2012. Biological productivity in small impoundments. In: Small Impoundment Management in North America, American Fisheries Society. p. 83-112.

Last Modified: 10/16/2017
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