Location: Market Quality and Handling Research2013 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Develop virginia- and runner-type peanut cultivars with enhanced sensory quality and improved shelf-life.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Sensory quality of roasted seeds from breeding lines from the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service's peanut breeding program will be evaluated by a sensory panel, and composition of seed components related to flavor and shelf-life will be determined. Substantial natural variation for sensory quality exists within the cultivated peanut species (Arachis hypogaea L.). Genetic control of the intensity of roasted peanut, sweet, and bitter sensory attributes within specific crosses has not been elucidated, but in a quantitative genetic sense, they appear to exhibit substantial non-additive variation, suggesting that occurrence of better tasting variants may be somewhat unpredictable. Data indicates that the genetic component of variation in sensory quality amounts to 10% to 25% of the total, depending on the specific sensory attribute.
3. Progress Report:
This project is related to in-house objective 2 addressing improving the flavor and flavor consistency and reduce off-flavor potential in peanut varieties, breeding lines, germplasm and peanut products. Flavor of peanut breeding lines being developed for commercial release as new varieties remains an important attribute for manufacturers of peanut products. For the third year, samples from the UPPT were subjected to sensory evaluation by a trained panel as well as to analysis for tocopherols, sugars and fatty acids. Nine locations provided 13 peanut breeding lines. Differences were found in flavor among the lines, but all lines had acceptable flavor quality. This data was made available to breeders for evaluation and identification of lines with desired chemical and nutritional attributes. This data indicates to breeders working on these lines that continuation of development is warranted. This also indicates to shellers and manufacturers that forthcoming lines will have acceptable flavor and nutritional qualities. Sensory quality testing of samples from the multi-state Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) was done at the Market Quality Unit. These results were subjected to statistical evaluation. Restricted maximum likelihood estimation of variance components reflecting a range of interactions was performed. These components were effects of year, production region, year-by-year region interaction, location with regions, year-by-location interaction in region, genotype, year-by-genotype interaction, region-by-genotype interaction, year-by-region-by-genotype interaction, location-by-genotype interaction in region, year-by-location-by-genotype interaction in region, kernel grade within genotype, year-by-grade interaction in genotype, region-by-grade interaction in genotype, year-by-region-by-grade interaction in genotype, location-by-grade interaction in region and genotype. From the results, breeders should be able to reliably identify lines with superior sweet attribute intensity, but identification of lines with intense roasted peanut attribute will be more difficult.