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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Mosquito and Fly Research

2010 Annual Report

1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
1. Provide better tools for surveillance and risk assessment by: studying house fly feeding behavior, resource location, and nutrition under field conditions; developing more efficient stable fly attractants; studying specific behaviors of adults; and determining the risk of introduction of Stomoxys species other than calcitrans and prioritize the risk of other potentially invasive fly species, including traps that sample across the entire population of adults and produce results with quantifiable error terms. 2. Develop more efficient integrated pest management by determining weaknesses within fly life cycles and matching these weaknesses to appropriate chemical control methods; and by developing biologically-based and bio-rational control methods. 3. Conceive and test applications of behavior-altering methods (e.g., behavior altering devices, attractants, repellents) for practical use, including repellents for livestock. 4. Determine the role of flies in dissemination of priority food safety pathogens including the role of some of the less-studied species of flies.

1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Nutritional attractants of house flies will be identified and new chemical lures for stable fly traps will be developed. Trapping data will be used to determine the risk of introduction of exotic Stomoxys spp. at ports in the southeastern U.S. Virus-based baits from candidate strains will be developed to control house flies. Systems for production of Diapriid parasitoids will be ready for transfer to commercial insectaries. These parasitoids can be effective for management of immature stable flies and house flies. New stable fly repellents for use on livestock will be evaluated in laboratory and field trials. Behavior-altering chemicals/surface combinations to repel and/or kill house flies will be evaluated in the laboratory with the aid of video monitoring and evaluation systems. An insecticide-based perimeter treatment method to provide protection against dispersing flies will be subjected to final field evaluations. The role of house fly in transmission of Salmonella enteriditis via contaminated poultry feed will be determined by exposing flies to contaminated feed and measuring their ability to transfer the pathogen to clean substrates.

3. Progress Report
House flies and stable flies are important in agricultural and urban areas because of their pestiferous nature to humans and animals, their association with filth, and potential for pathogen transmission. Many fly management techniques are pesticide-based, but little is known about sustainable techniques using effective trapping, repellents for personal protection, and biological control. Products can be used to improve existing integrated pest management (IPM) systems, and for monitoring and managing house flies and stable flies. Longevity of house flies maintained on food resources commonly found on dairies was less than 4 days for water only, brewers grains, calf manure, citrus pellets and hominy, and about 7 days for milled soy and sorghum. Flies maintained on three pelletized calf feeds lived 14 days. Bioassays developed to assess attraction of stable fly fecal compounds applied to filter paper were based on the stable fly’s tendency to land on objects suspended in their cages. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), which infects salivary glands and blocks egg production in their hosts, was found in more than 60% of Danish fly populations, with maximum infection rates of 5%. The virus can replicate in some fly species (stable fly, Hydrotaea aenescens) but not in others (Scatophaga stercoraria, face fly, calliphorids, Eristalis tenax). In the previous project, a perimeter of imidacloprid-treated visual targets provided partial protection of a building from immigrating house flies. During the past few months additional insecticides have been tested for possible use on the targets. These results indicate that endosulfan, pyriproxyfen, and boric acid may be useful for this application.

4. Accomplishments
1. House fly longevity on different diets. ARS researchers at Gainesville, Florida, needed to know how long house flies will live on potential food materials commonly found on dairies. Flies lived up to 7 days on constituents used in cattle feed, but lived about 14 days on pelletized calf feeds. Results will be used to identify food-based attractants that could be used in fly control efforts.

2. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies. ARS researchers at Gainesville, Florida, have found that the naturally occurring salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV) infects the salivary glands and blocks egg production in their fly hosts. In Denmark, 60% of the flies were infected, with 5% having maximum infection rates. SGHV could prove useful for managing house flies and other nuisance flies without the use of pesticides.

3. Insecticide-treated targets for house fly exclusion. ARS researchers at Gainesville, Florida, have shown that a perimeter of imidacloprid-treated visual targets can partially protect a building from immigrating house flies. However, imidacloprid resistance in house flies is increasing and alternative pesticides are needed for treating the targets. Tests have shown that endosulfan, pyriproxyfen, and boric acid may be useful for this application.

Review Publications
Taylor, D.B., Moon, R.D., Campbell, J.B., Berkebile, D.R., Scholl, P.J., Broce, A.B., Hogsette, Jr, J.A. 2010. Dispersal of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) from larval development sites in a Nebraska landscape. Environmental Entomology. 39(4):1101-1110.

Hoffmann, W.C., Farooq, M., Walker, T.W., Fritz, B.K., Szumlas, D., Bernier, U.R., Hogsette Jr., J.A., Lan, Y., Huang, Y., Quinn, B.P., Smith, V.L., Robinson, C.A. 2009. Canopy penetration and deposition of barrier sprays from electrostatic and conventional sprayers. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 25:323-331.

Geden, C.J., Moon, R.D. 2009. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae). Environmental Entomology. 38(3):700-707.

Geden, C.J., Szumlas, D.E., Walker, T.W. 2009. Evaluation of commercial and field-expedient baited traps for house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Vector Ecology. 34(1):99-103.

Kaufman, P.E., Geden, C.J. 2009. Development of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Live and Freeze-killed House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae. Florida Entomologist. 92(3)492-496.

Kaufman, P.E., Nunez, S., Mann, R.S., Geden, C.J., Scharf, M.E. 2009. Nicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticide Resistance in house Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) Collected from Florida dairies. Pest Management Science. 66:290-294.

Prompiboon, P., Lietze, V., Denton, J., Geden, C.J., Steenberg, T., Boucias, D.G. 2010. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus that Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 76(4):994-998.

Last Modified: 06/27/2017
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