1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
Specifically, we will: (1) isolate and identify attractive olfactory stimuli associated with host- and mate-finding for adult plum curculio using gas chromatography coupled with electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and mass spectrometry (MS); (2) develop effective deployment strategies for newly identified olfactory stimuli to manipulate host- and mate-finding behavior and promote aggregation of the plum curculio within commercial apple orchards; (3) evaluate efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against PC larvae; (4) evaluate efficacy of a multi-life stage approach for management of PC within spatially precise locations within commercial apple orchards; and (5) actively promote outreach and information exchange among interested stakeholders, crop consultants, state IPM research and extension programs, and federal researchers.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
We will utilize laboratory-based electrophysiological studies and field-based bioassays to identify novel olfactory stimuli for the plum curculio. We will also perform laboratory- and field-based studies to identify effective entomopathogenic nematodes. Final evaluations will be conducted in commercial orchards. "Specialty Crops Research Initiative".
3. Progress Report
Currently, we have initiated studies under Objectives 1, 2, 3, and 5. Under Objective 1, we have begun to isolate and identify attractive olfactory stimuli associated with host- and mate-finding for adult PC using new electrophysiological techniques. To date, we have determined the abiotic conditions and physiological parameters necessary for sustained and predictable male pheromone production in the laboratory. We also have identified a chemical standard, trans-2-hexenal, to be used in EAG and GC-EAD studies. For Objective 2, we have deployed trap trees in six commercial orchards in New England. In this case, the standard bait formulation of the aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid in combination with benzaldehyde is being used. These data will be used as baseline information as we go forward in the field. Under Objective 3, trials are currently underway evaluating the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against PC larvae. Specifically, strains of nematodes that are potentially active at lower temperatures are being evaluated in soils endemic to the mid-Atlantic and New England regions. Abiotic conditions associated with soils in New England are currently being tracked in six commercial orchards. Under Objective 5, we have begun to construct a plum curculio web site that is designed to actively promote outreach and information exchange among interested stakeholders, crop consultants, state IPM research and extension programs, and federal researchers. The ADODR has monitored activities through emails, meetings, and calls.