1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
1. Develop, evaluate, and encourage implementation of economical and environmentally friendly pest management strategies for Hawaii’s agricultural cops, which are all classified as minor crops. 2. Develop new cultivars of flowers, nursery plants and other crops through traditional breeding or genetic modification technologies to enhance their pest resistance, novelty, production and/or quality. 3. Develop and evaluate improvements to quarantine, marketing, and other governmental and industrial practices and policies to strengthen the competitiveness of Hawaii-grown minor crops.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
The project approach is to address the development of economical and environmentally friendly pest management strategies for Hawaii’s crops. Utilize traditional breeding techniques and genetic engineering to develop cultivars, including flowers and nursery plants, that are resistant to pests, or exhibit improved novelty, production or quality. Analyze and evaluate the significance of current policies and practices, and develop changes in strategy or new policies to improve the competitiveness of Hawaii-grown minor crops.
3. Progress Report:
One goal of the cooperative agreement is to develop new cultivars of flowers, nursery plants and other crops through traditional breeding or genetic modification technologies to enhance their pest resistance, novelty, production and/or quality. This project contributes directly to objectives 4 and 6 of the parent project, "Assess the efficacy and quality of laboratory-reared insects used in SIT and natural enemies for control of fruit flies and other tropical plant pests of quarantine significance, and determine factors limiting their effectiveness", and "Develop area-wide IPM systems including integration of environmentally friendly replaacements for organophosphate chemicals to reduce the economic impact of fruit flies and othere tropical plant pests". A total of thirty-one anthurium lines were placed into tissue culture with the following objectives: 21 selections for clonal multiplication and further observation prior to advance testing with cooperators on the island of Hawaii; 1 selection for germplasm storage, 2 accessions for germplasm storage, 2 UH-developed varieties and 5 named non-UH varieties for germplasm storage and triple-indexing. Two selections, orange UH1992 and red UH2237 were distributed to cooperators for advance testing, and 5 selections were dropped from field trials due to poor field performance for a total of 17 anthurium selections undergoing field testing. Twenty-three dendrobium crosses were germinated for cut flower or potted plant production, novel flower color (blue, peach and red) or germplasm improvement. Indexing of ‘Ellison Onizuka’ anthurium was completed; to date, 6 commercial varieties and 28 University of Hawaii-released varieties have been triple indexed. Indexing of in vitro stock material ensures that propagules for field planting are disease-free. Seed pods of 7 previously released cut flower varieties and 5 potted plant were provided to the Orchid Growers of Hawaii to fulfill stakeholders’ needs for growing material. The coffee berry borer (CBB) showed similar attraction for green or red color and the various designs of the traps. High capture was observed at traps located at 0.5 and 1.5 meters above the ground. Significant CBB capture was observed from March to May (flowering) and numbers were reduced during fruit development and harvest season. B. bassiana provided control with the highest dose and after the second application. Low and middle B. bassiana doses did not provide control for CBB with one or two applications. In the 2012 trials, the number of infested berries was significantly reduced on plants sprayed with Surround WP compared to control plants (no Surround WP applied). Surround WP reduced the CBB infestation by 28 to 79%, provided good application coverage was achieved. Good coverage is essential to protect the berries from the CBB attack, and therefore multiple applications may be required. Our results suggest kaolin clay has potential to be used as a barrier on coffee berries to reduce CBB attack. It may be used as an alternative tool in an integrated management against CBB and offer an alternative management for organic coffee growers as well, as long as applications are made appropriately. Combination of trapping (Feb-May), trap height at 0.5 meters, a high dose of B. bassiana and a good coverage of berries with Surround WP are recommended as components of an IPM program.