Location: Crop Germplasm Research2011 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
We propose to use greenhouse inoculations to evaluate the susceptibility of Juglans and Juglandaceae germplasm to Thousand Cankers disease. The immediate goal is to evaluate the potential risk posed by Thousand Cankers disease to NCGR core collections in Davis, Corvallis, and Somerville. All data, including information concerning variation in resistance within species will be communicated to the NCGR curators who will add it to the GRIN database. They may also choose to: 1) Pursue funding for additional evaluation of susceptible species and families within existing collections; 2) Begin additional research related to protection of existing collections where necessary; 3) Begin evaluation of the need to backup existing collections if they are threatened by Thousand Cankers disease; and 4) Add genotypes to their collections if useful variability in susceptibility is detected.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
One–year-old woody seedlings (1-0 nursery stock or its equivalent) of J. californica, J. nigra, J. regia, J. ailantifolia, J. cinerea, J. major, J. hindsii, J. microcarpa, Paradox rootstocks, C. illinoinensis, C. aquatic, C. ovata, and C. texana approximately 0.5-1 cm diameter at ground level will be used for pathogenicity tests. J. major is included in the study as a control, since it is a host for P. juglandis but is not usually killed by Geosmithia. Dormant trees will be planted in 3.8-liter pots in a commercial nursery mix and placed in a greenhouse at Colorado State University. Inoculations will be made after the trees resume growth and leaves have fully emerged. Two isolates each of Geosmithia will be grown for 10 days on 1/2 strength PDA. Inoculations will be made by slicing down through the bark with a sterile scalpel at three sites on each stem. Resulting wounds are approximately 0.5-1.0 cm wide and 1 cm long with the flap of bark still attached to the stem at the base of the wound. A plug of sterile 1/2 strength PDA approximately 0.5 cm2 will be inserted under the bark flap and against the wood on the middle wound on each tree. An agar plug of similar size but colonized by one of the fungal isolates will then be inserted under the bark flap on the top and bottom wound. Four to 18 trees of each taxa will be inoculated with each isolate. All wounds will be sealed with Parafilm(R) and the trees will be randomly placed on a greenhouse bench. The Parafilm(R) will be removed after 3 wk. After 8 wk, all trees will be harvested and the outer bark shaved from the wounds with a sterile scalpel to expose the extent of bark colonization. The length and area of discolored tissue will be recorded and compared to cankers on the susceptible J. nigra and the control species J. major. If there are space, labor, or time constraints in the completion of the research, the cooperator will consult with the chair of the Juglans CGC and the other PIs to determine how many trees of each species to inoculate and evaluate. The goal will be to obtain clean, replicated data from as many taxa as possible, with priority given to those genotypes currently in NCGR repositories.
3. Progress Report
The goal of this project is to evaluate the susceptibility of Juglans and Juglandaceae germplasm to thousand cankers disease. At the request of colleagues working with Juglans, seed nuts and herbarium vouchers were collected from several Texas populations of Juglans microcarpa, J. major, and J. nigra, some previously undocumented, for the purpose of providing germplasm for use in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository at Davis, CA. Samples were characterized for morphological descriptors of nuts and leaves, revealing considerable overlap between species. DNA was extracted from each individual and evaluated using molecular markers developed for use in the sister genus Carya (pecan). The data obtained showed distinct genetic differences among the species. Herbarium voucher specimens of Texas Juglans species at the Tracy Herbarium (Texas A&M University) and The University of Texas Herbarium were annotated. Results of that information were combined with those of collection trips and used to revise the distribution map of Juglans in Texas. No evidence of thousand cankers disease was found. This research, as it progresses, will continue to make important contributions in understanding the potential sensitivity of native tree species to potentially devastating diseases vectored by resident insect populations; such understanding may help prevent the spread of pests to associated orchard crops. The ADODR of this project and the cooperator maintain regular communication by phone and e-mail, where progress of the work is discussed and evaluated, and where solutions to work impediments are developed. The ADODR and the cooperator periodically meet face-to-face (at scientific meetings, etc.) to discuss research priorities and the overall direction and progress of the work.