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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Location: Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging

2013 Annual Report

1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
LAB: ANTIOXIDANTS Objective 1. Identify and quantify the phytochemical content of: blueberries, cranberries, and grapes; almonds, pistachios, and walnuts; whole grains; and cocoa-based foods; and contribute to future updates of the USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods. Objective 2. Determine the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and bioactivity of flavonoids and other phytochemicals from antioxidant-rich foods using in vitro experiments, animal models, and human studies.. Objective 3 Investigate the effect of age on quercetin bioavailability and metabolism due to changes in phase II enzyme activity. Objective 4. Test whether exposure of rat dams to a “Western” diet during pregnancy and lactation will increase obese phenotypes in their pups and whether dietary flavonoids, particularly isoflavones, will decrease the obese phenotype. LAB: CAROTENOIDS Objective 1: Determine the ability of bioactive plant-based foods, including carotenoid-rich foods to exert biological functions and affect genomic stability. Objective 2: Determine the vitamin A requirement of healthy U.S. adults.

1b. Approach (from AD-416):
LAB: ANTIOXIDANTS Using advanced chromatographic methods, we will measure the flavonoid content and evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of selected plant foods and the influence of geographical regions, agricultural practices, and processing and storage. A rat model as well as microsomes from various rat tissues will be utilized to determine the effect of age on quercetin bioavailability and metabolism due to changes in phase II enzyme activity. We will explore the possible fetal origins of chronic disease by feeding obesigenic diets to rat dams during pregnancy and lactation and examine the change in obese phenotypes in their pups and test whether dietary flavonoids, particularly isoflavones, will decrease this phenotype. Using healthy older adults, we will determine the bioavailability and distribution of cranberry anthocyanins to blood, urine, and feces. Employing volunteers with coronary heart disease, we will test the effect of almond consumption on biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. LAB: CAROTENOIDS By recruiting older adults (>60 yr, men and post-menopausal women) without and with metabolic syndrome to ingest bioactive plant foods or histidine dipeptide rich foods, we will measure plasma total antioxidant performance, plasma in vivo oxidative stress biomarkers, plasma water-soluble and fat-soluble antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid), plasma biomedical parameters to determine the ability of bioactive plant-based foods, including carotenoid-rich foods, to exert biological functions and affect genomic stability. Also, to explore a possible correlation between a change in serum apoE and a change in Macular Pigment (MP) density, we will measure HDL subpopulations by non-denaturing 2d gel electrophoresis, immuno-blotting, and image analysis. We will measure lipoproteins, antioxidative capacity, and markers of inflammation in order to better define the mechanism by which decreased body weight is associated with increased MP in humans. Using the stable isotope labeled vitamin A (labeled in three different levels, ^13 C_4 , ^13 C_8 , ^13 C_12 – retinyl acetate) and aphereses-autologues technique on human volunteers, we will measure the enrichment of these labeled retinols in human circulations and mathematical modeling to determine vitamin A bioavailability and the requirement of vitamin A through an intervention trial with various levels of vitamin A.

3. Progress Report:
This progress report includes the work of two subordinate projects at the HNRCA funded through a Specific Cooperative Agreeement with TUFTS UNIVERSITY. For further information and progress reports, see 1950-51000-073-01S(Antioxidants Research) and 1950-51000-073-02S (Carotenoids and Health).

4. Accomplishments

Review Publications
Berryman, C.E., Grieger, J.A., West, S.G., Chen, C., Blumberg, J.B., Rothblat, G.H., Sankaranarayanan, S., Kris-Etherton, P.M. 2013. Acute Consumption of Walnuts and Walnut Components Differentially Affect Postprandial Lipemia, Endothelial Function, Oxidative Stress, and Cholesterol Efflux in Humans with Mild Hypercholesterolemia.. Journal of Nutrition. 143:788-794.

Serra, A., Bryant, N., Motiva, M., Blumberg, J.B., Chen, C. 2012. The fetal programming of dietary fructose and saturated fat on hepatic quercetin glucuronidation in rats. Nutrition. 28:1165-1171.

Vishwanathan, R., Johnson, E.J. 2013. Nutrition and age-related eye diseases. In: David Heber, M.D.,PhD. Handbook of Nutrition and Food. 3rd Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p.1023-1036.

Liu, J., Liu, Y., Chen, C., Chang, W., Chen, C. 2013. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial. European Journal of Nutrition. 52:927-935.

Marklund, M., Mckeown, N.M., Blumberg, J.B., Chen, C. 2013. Hepatic biotransformation of alkylresorcinols is mediated via cytochrome P450 and beta-oxidation: a proof of concept study. Food Chemistry. 139:925-930.

Maki, K.C., Gibson, G.R., Dickmann, R.S., Kendall, C.C., Chen, C., Costabile, A., Almeida, N.G., Jenkins, D., Zello, G.A., Blumberg, J.B. 2012. Digestive and physiological effects of a wheat bran extract, arabino-xylan-oligosaccharide, in breakfast cereal. Nutrition. 28:1115-1121.

Johnson, E.J. 2012. A possible role for lutein and zeaxanthin in cognitive function in the elderly. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 96(5):1161S-1165S.

Racicot, K., Craven, A., Chen, C. 2012. Bleaching augments lipid peroxidation products in pistachio oil and its cytotoxicity. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 114:1362-1372.

Rasmussen, H.M., Johnson, E.J. 2013. Nutrients for the aging eye. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 8:741-748.

Rasmussen, H.M., Muzhingi, T., Eggert, E.R., Johnson, E.J. 2012. Lutein, zeaxanthin, meso-zeaxanthin content in egg yolk and their absence in fish and seafood. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 27(2):139-144.

Vishwanathan, R., Chung, M., Johnson, E.J. 2013. A systematic review on zinc for the prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 54(6):3985-3998.

Johnson, E.J., Vishwanathan, R., Johnson, M., Hausman, D.B., Davey, A., Scott, T.M., Green, R.C., Miller, L., Gearing, M., Woodward, J., Nelson, P.T., Chung, H., Schalch, W., Wittwer, J., Poon, L.W. 2013. Relationship between serum and brain carotenoids, a-tocopherol and retinol concentrations and cognitive performance in the oldest old from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Journal of Aging Research. DOI:10.1155/2013/951786.

Shim, E., Yeum, K., Tang, G., Ahn, S., Hwang, J., Lee-Kim, Y. 2012. Retinoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast adipose tissue and serum of benign breast disease and breast cancer patients. Nutrition and Cancer. 64(7):956-963.

Joo, N., Dawson-Hughes, B., Kim, Y., Oh, K., Yeum, K. 2013. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 28(4):764-770.

Li, L., Zhao, X., Wang, J., Muzhingi, T., Suter, P.M., Tang, G., Yin, S. 2012. Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children determined by a paired isotope dilution technique. Journal of Nutritional Science. doi:10.1017/jns.2012.21.

Dohadwala, M.M., Holbrook, M., Hamburg, N.M., Shenouda, S.M., Chung, W.B., Titas, M., Kluge, M.A., Wang, N., Palmisano, J., Milbury, P.E., Blumberg, J.B., Vita, J.A. 2011. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 93(5):934-940.

Last Modified: 10/17/2017
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