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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Location: Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging

2011 Annual Report

1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
LAB: ANTIOXIDANTS Objective 1. Identify and quantify the flavonoid content of: blueberries, cranberries, and grapes; almonds, pistachios, and walnuts; and cocoa-based foods and contribute to future updates of the USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods. Objective 2. Investigate the effect of age on quercetin bioavailability and metabolism due to changes in phase II enzyme activity. Objective 3. Test whether exposure of rat dams to a “Western” diet during pregnancy and lactation will increase obese phenotypes in their pups and whether dietary flavonoids, particularly isoflavones, will decrease the obese phenotype. LAB: CAROTENOIDS Objective 1: Determine the ability of bioactive plant-based foods, including carotenoid-rich foods to exert biological functions and affect genomic stability. Objective 2: Determine the vitamin A requirement of healthy U.S. adults.

1b. Approach (from AD-416)
LAB: ANTIOXIDANTS Using advanced chromatographic methods, we will measure the flavonoid content and evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of selected plant foods and the influence of geographical regions, agricultural practices, and processing and storage. We will also investigate the bioavailability and chemopreventive properties of flavonoids, particularly anthocyanins, from berry fruit in a mouse model by examining their actions to reduce oxidative stress, modulate cell signaling pathways, decrease inflammation, and promote phase II detoxification. A rat model as well as microsomes from various rat tissues will be utilized to determine the effect of age on quercetin bioavailability and metabolism due to changes in phase II enzyme activity. We will explore the possible fetal origins of chronic disease by feeding obesigenic diets to rat dams during pregnancy and lactation and examine the change in obese phenotypes in their pups and test whether dietary flavonoids, particularly isoflavones, will decrease this phenotype. Using healthy older adults, we will determine the bioavailability and distribution of cranberry anthocyanins to blood, urine, and feces. Employing volunteers with coronary heart disease, we will test the effect of almond consumption on biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. LAB: CAROTENOIDS By recruiting older adults (>60 yr, men and post-menopausal women) without and with metabolic syndrome to ingest bioactive plant foods or histidine dipeptide rich foods, we will measure plasma total antioxidant performance, plasma in vivo oxidative stress biomarkers, plasma water-soluble and fat-soluble antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid), plasma biomedical parameters to determine the ability of bioactive plant-based foods, including carotenoid-rich foods, to exert biological functions and affect genomic stability. Also, to explore a possible correlation between a change in serum apoE and a change in Macular Pigment (MP) density, we will measure HDL subpopulations by non-denaturing 2d gel electrophoresis, immuno-blotting, and image analysis. We will measure lipoproteins, antioxidative capacity, and markers of inflammation in order to better define the mechanism by which decreased body weight is associated with increased MP in humans. Using the stable isotope labeled vitamin A (labeled in three different levels, ^13 C_4 , ^13 C_8 , ^13 C_12 – retinyl acetate) and aphereses-autologues technique on human volunteers, we will measure the enrichment of these labeled retinols in human circulations and mathematical modeling to determine vitamin A bioavailability and the requirement of vitamin A through an intervention trial with various levels of vitamin A.

3. Progress Report
This progress report includes the work of two subordinate projects at the HNRCA funded through a Specific Cooperative Agreement with TUFTS UNIVERSITY. For further information and progress report, see 1950-51000-073-01S (Phytochemicals and Aging: Bioavailability, Metabolomics adn Bioactivity) and 1950-51000-073-02S (Dietary Carotenoids, Retinoids and Bioactivates on Healthy Aging).

4. Accomplishments

Review Publications
Li, S., Liu, Y., Chang, W., Chen, C., Chen, C., Liu, J. 2011. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 60:474-479.

Shih, C., Chen, C., Liu, J., Chen, C., Lin, H., Chou, H., Li, S. 2010. Riboflavin protects mice against liposaccharide-induced shock through expression of heat shock protein 25. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 48:1913-1918.

Sandberg, M.A., Johnson, E., Berson, E.L. 2010. Macular pigment optical density is related to serum lutein in retinitis pigmentosa. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 51(2):1086-1091.

Mckay, D.L., Chen, C., Saltzman, E., Blumberg, J.B. 2010. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 140(2):298-303.

Chen, C.E., Crott, J., Liu, Z., Smith, D. 2010. Fructose and saturated fats predispose hyperinsulinemia in lean male rat offspring. European Journal of Nutrition. 49(6):337-343.

Tang, G. 2010. Bioconversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 91(5):1466S-1473S.

Milbury, P.E., Kalt, W. 2010. Xenobiotic metabolism and berry flavonoid transport across the blood brain barrier. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 59(7):3950-3956.

Milbury, P.E., Vita, J.A., Blumberg, J.B. 2010. Anthocyanins are bioavailable in humans following an acute dose of cranberry juice. Journal of Nutrition. 140(6):1099-1104.

Correa, C.R., Li, L., Aldini, G., Carini, M., Chen, O., Chun, H., Cho, S., Park, K., Russell, R.M., Blumberg, J.B., Yeum, K. 2010. Composition and stability of phytochemicals in five varieties of black soybeans (glycine max). Food Chemistry. 123:1176-1184.

Aldini, G., Regazzoni, L., Pedretti, A., Carini, M., Cho, S., Park, K., Yeum, K. 2011. An integrated high resolution mass spectrometric and informatics approach for the rapid identification of phenolics in plant extract. Journal of Chromatography A. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.02.065.

Muzhingi, T., Gadaga, T., Siwela, A., Grusak, M., Russell, R., Tang, G. 2011. Yellow maize with high (beta)-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A in healthy Zimbabwean men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 94(2):510-519.

Last Modified: 10/19/2017
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