1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Objectives and Anticipated Impacts: The overall objective of this project is to develop advanced, biointensive apple IPM tactics and apply them in a system to reduce pesticide reliance and lower non-target pesticide impacts. Specific objectives address seven key areas. 1. Plum curculio - use a trap tree approach to replace general orchard sprays. 2. Apple maggot - use pesticide-treated sphere traps for management rather than general orchard sprays. 3. Obliquebanded leafrollers and internal Lepidoptera - use seasonal fruit monitoring programs for optimizing insecticide treatments. 4. Eliminate organophosphates and use pesticides with fewer non-target impacts. 5. Apple scab - use potential ascospore dose, inoculum destruction and degree-day model to delay initial fungicide applications in the following season and end applications when unnecessary. 6. Sooty blotch and flyspeck - develop model-directed applications of reduced-risk fungicides. 7. Eliminate carbaryl - for fruit thinning, develop approaches that do not use carbaryl as a thinning agent.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Use a trap tree approach to replace general orchard sprays in plum curculio. Use pesticide-treated sphere traps for management rather than general orchard sprays for apple maggot.
3. Progress Report:
Specific objectives addressed by the USDA-ARS-AFRS include the implementation of behaviorally-based, reduced risk management strategies for plum curculio (PC) and apple maggot. In 2010 and 2011, commercial apple growers in New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshire implemented the trap tree management strategy for PC and a perimeter deployment of attracticidal spheres for apple maggot fly. For this trial, ~12 perimeter-row trees (based on a 5-acre experimental plot) were baited with a synergistic odor blend for PC, consisting of four dispensers of benzaldehyde and a single dispenser of grandisoic acid. These trap trees were deployed ~25 meters from the ends of perimeter rows and separated by ~50 meters within the perimeter row or row ends. At petal fall, each grower applied a full-block insecticide treatment, using materials selected from the list of program-certified products. After petal fall, PC was managed in the advanced IPM plots using a trap-tree management protocol; only the odor-baited trap trees were treated with insecticide following the full-block insecticide application at petal fall. Need and material for, and timing and rate of insecticide applications in the trap-tree plot were left to the discretion of the participating grower, but all treatments after petal fall were limited to odor-baited trap trees. The incidence of injury to fruit by PC in both the advanced IPM plot and grower control plot were assessed ~8 weeks after the petal fall spray. For apple maggot fly in the advanced IPM plot, we assessed the protective capability of odor-baited, toxicant-treated attracticidal spheres for direct control of apple maggot fly as a commercial substitute for summer insecticide sprays. In each of the advanced IPM plots, we deployed a perimeter arrangement of odor-baited sphere traps to intercept and kill immigrating apple maggot flies; these test plots received no insecticide spray targeting apple maggot flies from mid-June through harvest. As with the PC trap-tree assessments, the paired, grower-managed plots received insecticide treatments based on individual growers' determination of need, timing, material, and rate. Both advanced IPM plots and grower-managed plots were equipped with unbaited monitoring spheres within the body of the plot to monitor fly population density. Capture rates of apple maggot flies on these monitoring traps were recorded biweekly. At harvest, we evaluated fruit for the presence of apple maggot fly injury in plots protected by odor-baited visual traps and by conventional insecticide treatments.