Location: Plant Introduction Research2013 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Cultivars of Camelina sativa have already been released and are being grown for feed, food and biofuel production. Thlaspi arvense, commonly known as pennycress, and other Thlaspi species are of interest for oilseed production because their biennial growth habit would fit into a crop production scheme where Thlaspi would be produced from October-early June, and followed by a different annual crop that would utilize the summer growing season. Neither of these Brassicaceae collections held by the NPGS has been thoroughly evaluated in a common location. Understanding the range of adaptive, phenotypic and compositional traits would enable researchers to better understand genotype x environmental interactions on traits of interest and to target accessions useful for domestication, crop production and end use.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
In collaboration with the Ames PIRU and the Peoria NCAUR units, ISU will oversee the field and laboratory experiments as follows, and be responsible for loading all GRIN descriptor data into the GRIN system. Descriptor evaluations will be collected in a replicated design for approximately 40 Camelina and 20 Thlaspi accessions, including appropriate Brassica benchmark accessions as checks, at two locations (Ames, IA and Peoria, IL). 1. Determination of vernalization (whether it is required for bolting) and germination requirements (Ames). 2. Phenological descriptors – emergence date, first, middle and last flower date, flower color, days to harvest in field conditions and under controlled conditions (growth chambers). 3. Morphological and growth descriptors - number of leaves at bolting, flower stalk height, plant height, uniformity, various silique, locule and seed descriptors. 4. Seed production descriptors – seed yield, 100 seed weight. 5. Chemical descriptors – fatty acid compositional profile, seed glucosinolate content, percent oil content, development of oil content during maturation. 6. Collection and posting of digital images of flowers, plants, siliques, and seeds. 7. Tissue collection on DNA cards (2009-2010) for future co-dominant SSR or SNP molecular marker analyses, not currently funded by this project.
3. Progress Report:
A camelina mapping population was evaluated for oil concentration. Forty-eight F2:3 lines were selected from the high and low oil concentration tails of the distribution (based on 2011 data) and were planted in two locations (Ames, IA and Prosper, ND) with three replications. Seeds were harvested by line, bulked, and analyzed for oil concentration. Additional phenotypic descriptors such as flowering time, and initial and final plant stands were recorded. Dry, hot conditions during the summer of 2012 reduced the oil concentration in the F2:3 lines (10-25% reduction); similar results were obtained from both locations (Ames, IA and Fargo, ND) compared with the 2011 season results. DNA samples of the Camelina mapping population were sent to a lab at Agriculture and Agri-food Canada (Saskatoon) for SNP genotyping. Initial results analyzed in cooperation with scientists from Iowa State University's Agronomy Department show high segregation distortion in the population evaluated. Phenotypic analysis for oil concentration, samples were analyzed in Peoria, Illinois at the USDA-ARS-NCAUR Lab. An oral presentation titled "Genetic And Phenotypic Diversity In Camelina Germplasm" was presented in the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC) conference hold in Sonoma, California (Nov. 11-16, 2012). For this purpose, two graduate student travel awards were obtained, the "Award Travel of the Advancement of Industrial Crops–AAIC" and the "Oblinger Award".