ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF ESSENTIAL MINERAL NUTRIENTS IN CHILDREN
Children's Nutrition Research Center
2013 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
The overall goal of our research is to develop nutritionally enhanced plant foods that provide increased nutrient bioavailability and absorption in children. Ultimately, this plant food research in combination with mineral nutrition research in children will allow researchers to provide guidance regarding food intake and fortification, specifically related to iron, zinc, Vitamin C and calcium. Specific objectives of this research include: 1) use genetic, molecular, and physiological approaches to define the role of specific genes and gene products in the acquisition and whole-organism partitioning of minerals (iron, zinc, Vitamin C, calcium, and magnesium) and other factors that inhibit or promote absorption of these minerals in plant foods; 2) Conduct animal and human feeding studies to determine mineral bioavailability of the nutritionally enhanced crops; 3) develop new, cost-effective methods for the intrinsic labeling of plant foods for use in nutrient bioavailability studies; 4) determine the absorption of dietary calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc in children and the influence of other nutrients and dietary factors on the absorption; 5) (deleted due to resignation of investigator); 6) determine the effect of dietary components on the upregulation of intestinal iron transporter genes in human models; 7) characterize dynamic indices of bone formation by quantitative histomorphometry and micro computed tomography in 7 mouse models; 8) quantitate specific gene expression in calvarial osteoblasts derived from mouse models; and 9) determine the effects of hormone ablation, iron loading, ASC feeding and plant derived antioxidants on bone parameters in vivo. These efforts will expand our capabilities for assessing the absorption and metabolism of various plant-derived minerals and phytochemicals and will provide novel information directly useful to government, industry and the consumer related to dietary requirements. The generation of new bioavailability data for various plant-derived nutrients will be established and such data will have global application and provide a strong basis for evidence-based nutritional recommendations to be developed.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
These research studies will utilize diverse plant species, human cell culture systems, or human subjects. CNRC scientists will focus on characterizing plant genes and gene products that are involved with mineral transport in the plant, with a focus on iron, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. We will use specifically manipulated transgenic lines, various plant mutants, or unique plant genotypes to assess the impact of altered genes on mineral transport and storage throughout various plant tissues. In order to facilitate studies of bioavailability of plant-based nutrients, we will develop new, cost-effective methods for the intrinsic, stable-isotopic labeling of plant foods, by testing different hydroponic strategies and altered timings of isotope application to the plants. Food-based factors associated with the dietary delivery of the essential minerals calcium, iron, and zinc will be investigated using human in vitro cell culture and human subject-based experiments. We will conduct a controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation to assess the effects of vitamin D status on calcium absorption in small children. We will evaluate different types of whole diets (lacto-ovo vegetarian) on iron status and the effects of differing intakes of zinc on zinc and copper absorption. We will determine if benefits previously seen for prebiotic fibers in enhancing calcium absorption also occur for iron absorption. Low abundance stable isotopes of each element will be used to track absorption in each of these human studies. In vitro cell culture models will seek to identify the genetic basis for iron and zinc absorption in intestinal cells, by monitoring mineral absorption in combination with the differential expression of various metal transporter genes. We will explore the roles of aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase in modulating oxidative stress in cells, as well as their separate role in providing the starting substrates for the ascorbate synthesis pathway. Ultimately we will have a better understanding of the role of vitamin C in our diet.
3. Progress Report:
Significant research progress was accomplished during the year. To review the progress, please refer to project 6250-51000-051-10S (Project #1) and 6250-5100-051-20S (Project #2).
Emery, L., Whelan, S., Hirschi, K.D., Pittman, J.K. 2012. Protein phylogenetic analysis of Ca(2+)/cation antiporters and insights into their evolution in plants. Frontiers in Plant Science. 3(1):1-19.
Lopez-Millan, A.-F., Grusak, M.A., Abadia, J. 2012. Carboxylate metabolism changes induced by Fe deficiency in barley, a Strategy II plant species. Journal of Plant Physiology. 169(11):1121-1124.
Hirschi, K.D., Thompson, S.M. 2011. Calcium biofortification of crops. In: Bidlack, R.L., Rodriguez, W.A., editors. Nutritional Genomics: The Impact of Dietary Regulation of Gene Function on Human Disease. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. p. 317-330.
Borschel, M.W., Groh-Wargo, S., Brabec, B.A., Ziegler, E.E., Litov, R.E., Abrams, S.A., Oliver, J.S. 2012. Tolerance, bone mineral content, and serum vitamin D concentration of term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula. Open Nutrition Journal. 6:71-79.
Balay, K.S., Hawthorne, K.M., Hicks, P.D., Chen, Z., Griffin, I.J., Abrams, S.A. 2012. Low zinc status and absorption exist in infants with jejunostomies or ileostomies which persists after intestinal repair. Nutrients. 4:1273-1281.
Thankachan, P., Selvam, S., Surendran, D., Chellan, S., Pauline, M., Abrams, S.A., Kurpad, A.V. 2013. Efficacy of a multi micronutrient-fortified drink in improving iron and micronutrient status among schoolchildren with low iron stores in India: A randomised, double-masked placebo-controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 67(1):36-41.
Nakata, P.A. 2012. Influence of calcium oxalate crystal accumulation on the calcium content of seeds from Medicago truncatula. Plant Science. 185-186:246-249.
Foster, J., Kim, H.U., Nakata, P.A., Browse, J. 2012. A previously unknown oxalyl-CoA synthetase is important for oxalate catabolism in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell. 24(3):1217-1229.
Szymlek-Gay, E.A., Lonnerdal, B., Abrams, S.A., Kvistgaard, A.S., Domellof, M., Hernell, O. 2012. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants. Journal of Nutrition. 142(7):1226-1231.
Shafiee-Morrel, F., Grusak, M.A., Gustafson, S.J., Lila, M.A., Niculescu, M.D. 2012. Lower concentrations of blueberry polyphenolic-rich extract differentially alter HepG2 cell proliferation and expression of genes related to cell-cycle, oxidation and epigenetic machinery. Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy. 3:120.
Fisher, J.O., Birch, L.L., Zhang, J., Grusak, M.A., Hughes, S.O. 2013. External influences on children's self-served portions at meals. International Journal of Obesity. 37:954-960.
Abrams, S.A., Hawthorne, K.M., Chen, Z. 2013. Supplementation with 1000 IU vitamin D/d leads to parathyroid hormone suppression, but not increased fractional calcium absorption, in 4-8-y-old children: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 97(1):217-223.
Premkumar, M.H., Carter, B.A., Hawthorne, K.M., King, K., Abrams, S.A. 2013. High rates of resolution of cholestasis in parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease with fish oil-based lipid emulsion monotherapy. Journal of Pediatrics. 162(4):793-798.
Ghandehari, H., Lee, M.L., Rechtman, D.J., Abrams, S.A., H2MF Study Group. 2012. An exclusive human milk-based diet in extremely premature infants reduces the probability of remaining on total parenteral nutrition: A reanalysis of the data. BMC Research Notes. 5:188.
Morris, J.B., Grusak, M.A., Wang, M.L., Tonnis, B.D. 2013. Mineral, flavonoid, and fatty acid concentrations in ten diverse Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet accessions. In: Kuang, H., editor. Phytochemicals: Occurence in Nature, Health Effects and Antioxidant Properties. New York, NY, Nova Publishers. p. 219-224.
Gustafson, S.J., Yousef, G.G., Grusak, M.A., Lila, M.A. 2012. Effect of postharvest handling practices on phytochemical concentrations and bioactive potential in wild blueberry fruit. Journal of Berry Research. 2(4):215-227.
Etcheverry, P., Grusak, M.A., Fleige, L.E. 2012. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E. Frontiers in Physiology. 3:317.
Pathak, B.P., Jain, M., Tillman, B.L., Grusak, M.A., Gallo, M. 2013. Effect of gypsum application on mineral composition in peanut pod walls and seeds. Crop Science. 53:1658-1667.
Morris, J.B., Wang, M.L., Grusak, M.A., Tonnis, B.D. 2013. Fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral composition variability among seven macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc. accessions. Agriculture 2013. 3(1):157-169.
Lucas, W.J., Groover, A., Lichtenberger, R., Furuta, K., Yadav, S., Helariutta, Y., He, X., Fukuda, H., Kang, J., Brady, S.M., Patrick, J.W., Sperry, J., Yoshida, A., Lopez-Millan, A., Grusak, M.A., Kachroo, P. 2013. The plant vascular system: Evolution, development and functions. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 55(4):294-388.
Abrams, S.A., Coss-Bu, J.A., Tiosano, D. 2013. Vitamin D: Effects on childhood health and disease. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 9(3):162-170.
Abrams, S.A. 2013. Calcium and vitamin D requirements of enterally fed preterm infants. Pediatrics. 131(5):e1676-e1683.
Abrams, S.A. 2013. Targeting dietary vitamin D intakes and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in healthy infants. Journal of the American Medical Association. 309(17):1830-1831.
Sperotte, R.A., Vasconcelos, M.W., Grusak, M.A., Fett, J.P. 2012. Effects of different Fe supplies on mineral partitioning and remobilization during the reproductive development of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice. 5:27.
Blair, M.W., Izquierdo, P., Astudillo, C., Grusak, M.A. 2013. A legume biofortification quandary: Variability and genetic control of seed coat micronutrient accumulation in common beans. Frontiers in Plant Science. 4:275.