1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
The objectives of this cooperative research project are to: (1) Determine nutrient requirements of target aquatic species and develop viable diet formulations as a foundation for commercial industry development; (2) Identify and characterize regionally based plant and animal co-products as ingredients for aquatic feeds; and, (3) Develop commercially-applicable ingredient and feed processing techniques that optimize economic potential and limit waste.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Research will utilize tank and laboratory based trials to define key dietary requirements of Pacific white shrimp and marine fish of local interest (Pacific threadfin and amberjack); and, with PBARC, utilize molecular methods to identify expression sequences applicable to selective breeding and/or genetic modification. Efforts will also target novel and value-added regional plant and animal feedstuffs and waste-stream co-products from the biofuels and rendering industries in diets for target species. This project will also determine nutrient content, functional properties, nutrient digestibility, and attractability of potential ingredients and, with PBARC, identify and overcome anti-nutritional properties of novel ingredients through selective breeding and/or genetic modification. In addition, scale-up grinding, mixing, agglomeration, pre-conditioning, and post-conditioning methods applicable to commercial feed milling operations will be developed.
3. Progress Report:
This project focused on determining nutrient requirements and developing feedstuffs and feeds for shrimp and finfish; this directly contributes to objectives 1, 2, and 3 of the in-house project 5320-31000-008-00D that this SCA was established under (expired in FY2011). Determine nutrient requirements of target species and develop viable diet formulations as a foundation for commercial industry development. Prototype cost effective formulation for Pacific threadfin: Based on an 8-week feeding trial, we established a diet formulation containing 26% fishmeal and 33% soybean meal, which showed the same effect on growth performance of fish as a diet formulated with 50% fishmeal. This suggests the possibility of a decreased dependence on fishmeal for moi culture. Comparison of laboratory feed processing methods for Pacific threadfin: Prototype cost effective diets with 33% soybean meal and 26% fishmeal were processed using different methods (cold forming extrusion, pelleting with no steam and pelleting with steam). The processing methods did not cause a significant effect on the dietary quality of fish growth although the pelleting with steam method tended to promote higher growth in fish. A long term trial (>8 week) may be needed to further confirm this finding. Taurine stimulated the feeding of Pacific threadfin fed a low fishmeal diet: An 8 week feeding trial demonstrated that supplementation of 0.3-0.6% taurine in a diet containing 33% soybean meal and 26% fishmeal significantly increased feeding and growth performance of Pacific threadfin. This suggests that taurine supplementation may be necessary for a plant based diet to obtain optimal growth and feed utilization for moi culture. Utilization of DDGS (dry distilled grain soluble) in a low fishmeal diet for Pacific threadfin: A low fat DDGS was used to replace soybean meal protein in a low fishmeal (26%) diet formulation for Pacific threadfin. Test diets with 0-20% DDGS did not affect growth rate and survival after 8 a week feeding trial, suggesting the potential application of this ingredient in a cost effective feed for culture of the Pacific threadfin. Final samples are being processed for analysis. Identify and characterize regionally based plant and animal co-products as ingredients for aquatic feeds. Nutrient analyses of Island co-products: Nutrient analysis under this project include: crude protein, lipid, fiber, minerals, gross energy, amino acids, fatty acids and carotenoids pigments. The following local products or byproducts had been analyzed: two microalgae meal products (Haematococcus pluvialis & Spirulina platensis), two sea weeds (Pacific dulse & Ulva Lactuca), seven fungal samples, three fishery byproducts, nine oilseed presscakes, taro skin, and a banana meal product. Some information has been used to formulate diets for feeding trials with fish and shrimp. A defatted microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis) meal was used as a protein ingredient to partially replace fishmeal in diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study demonstrated that the defatted microalgae meal could replace up to 50% fishmeal protein without any adverse effect on growth performance of shrimp. A manuscript for this trial has been accepted for publication in Aquaculture. Develop commercially applicable feed processing techniques that optimize economic potential and limit waste. Organized a workshop focusing on how to utilize co-products from the biofuel industry in aquatic feeds and demonstrate how manufacturing techniques using those ingredients to make aquatic feeds. Ingredients such as defatted algae meal, distilled dry grain solids, and oil seed press cakes were used as examples in feed formulations for shrimp, abalone and moi. These SRD feeds were extruded at OI. Development of an extruded standard reference diet (SRD) for Shrimp, Pacific threadfin and Amberjack, were developed the previous year and three (3) SRD diets for Urchin (uni), Opihi (limpet), and Abalone were also formulated and manufactured. The Biofuels co-product workshop listed all the Standard Research Diets which were defined in nutrient profile, ingredient and ingredient content, extrusion barrel and screw configuration, processing parameters, and the final pellet physical quality for each of the feeds manufactured.