1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
The objectives of this cooperative research project are to: (1) Determine nutrient requirements of target aquatic species and develop viable diet formulations as a foundation for commercial industry development; (2) Identify and characterize regionally based plant and animal co-products as ingredients for aquatic feeds; and, (3) Develop commercially-applicable ingredient and feed processing techniques that optimize economic potential and limit waste.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Research will utilize tank and laboratory based trials to define key dietary requirements of Pacific white shrimp and marine fish of local interest (Pacific threadfin and amberjack); and, with PBARC, utilize molecular methods to identify expression sequences applicable to selective breeding and/or genetic modification. Efforts will also target novel and value-added regional plant and animal feedstuffs and waste-stream co-products from the biofuels and rendering industries in diets for target species. This project will also determine nutrient content, functional properties, nutrient digestibility, and attractability of potential ingredients and, with PBARC, identify and overcome anti-nutritional properties of novel ingredients through selective breeding and/or genetic modification. In addition, scale-up grinding, mixing, agglomeration, pre-conditioning, and post-conditioning methods applicable to commercial feed milling operations will be developed. Formerly 5320-31000-007-03G (8/2008). Documents SCA with Oceanic Institute. Formerly 5320-31000-007-04S (2/2010).
3. Progress Report:
This project focused on determining nutrient requirements and developing feedstuffs and feeds for shrimp and finfish; this directly contributes to objectives 1, 2, and 3 of the in-house project 5320-31000-008-00D that this SCA was established under (expired in FY2011). To clarify, ARS did not fund this agreement for FY2012, thus there was no work done and nothing to report for that period. This is the final report for this agreement which will terminate 9/18/2013. 2012-13: No funds received; no work done. 2011-12: Prototype cost effective formulation for Pacific threadfin: Based on an 8-week feeding trial, established a diet formulation containing 26% fishmeal and 33% soybean meal, which showed the same effect on growth performance of fish as a diet formulated with 50% fishmeal. This suggests the possibility of a decreased dependence on fishmeal for moi culture. Comparison of different lab feed processing methods for Pacific threadfin: Prototype cost effective diets with 33% soybean meal and 26% fishmeal were processed using different methods (cold forming extrusion, pelleting with no steam and pelleting with steam). The processing methods did not cause a significant effect on the dietary quality of fish growth although the pelleting with steam method tended to promote higher growth in fish. A long term trial (>8 week) may be needed to further confirm this finding. Taurine stimulated the growth performance of Pacific threadfin fed a low fishmeal diet: An 8 week feeding trial demonstrated that supplementation of 0.3-0.6% taurine in a diet containing 33% soybean meal and 26% fishmeal significantly increased growth performance of Pacific threadfin, suggesting that taurine supplementation may be necessary for a plant based diet to obtain optimal growth and feed utilization for moi culture. Utilization of DDGS (dry distilled grain soluble) in a low fishmeal diet for Pacific threadfin: A low fat DDGS was used to replace soybean meal protein in a low fishmeal (26%) diet for Pacific threadfin. Test diets with 0-20% DDGS did not affect growth rate and survival after 8 week feeding trial, suggesting the potential application of this ingredient in a cost effective feed for culture of the Pacific threadfin. Nutrient analysis of Island co-products: The following local products or byproducts were analyzed, 2 microalgae meal products, 2 sea weeds, 7 fungal samples, 3 fishery byproducts, 9 oilseed presscakes, taro skin, and a banana meal product. Nutrient analysis included crude protein, crude lipid, ash, dry matter, fiber, minerals, gross energy, amino acids, fatty acids, carotenoid pigments, and/or protein pigments. Some of these ingredients have been used to formulate diets for fish and shrimp trials. A defatted microalgae meal was used as a protein ingredient to partially replace fishmeal in diets for Pacific white shrimp: This study demonstrated that the defatted microalgae meal could replace up to 50% fishmeal protein without any adverse effect on growth performance of shrimp. A manuscript for this trial has been published in Aquaculture, referred to by many microalgae and biofuel researchers and selected one of the Top 5 most-downloaded articles in Aquaculture in 2012. Develop commercially applicable feed processing techniques that optimize economic potential and limit waste: A workshop was held focusing on how to utilize co-products from the biofuel industry in aquatic feeds. Defatted algae meal, distilled dry grain solids, and oil seed press cakes were used as examples in feed formulations for shrimp, abalone and moi. Development of an extruded standard reference diet (SRD) for Shrimp, Pacific threadfin and Amberjack, were developed the previous year and 3 SRD diets for Urchin (uni), Opihi (limpet), and Abalone were also formulated and manufactured. The Biofuels co-product workshop listed all the SRDs defined in nutrient profile, ingredient and ingredient content, extrusion barrel and screw configuration, processing parameters, and the final pellet physical quality for each of the feeds manufactured. Major Accomplishments Over the Life of the Project: This project has achieved the following accomplishments: 1) Determined the optimal feeding rate of Pacific threadfin ranging from 3-75 g size, which is a common testing size for fish in laboratory studies; 2) determined the requirement of key nutrients (lysine, taurine, protein and lipid) for Moi; Dietary lipid level can range from 10% to 14%. This information provides a foundation for development of a cost effective and nutritionally balanced diet; 3) established a prototype cost effective feed formulation (with less protein and lipid; but using more plant protein and less fishmeal for Moi culture; and 4) determined the methionine requirement of juvenile Pacific white shrimp. Research also demonstrated 1) local macroalgae products and byproducts are valuable for aquaculture, and can partially replace fishmeal in aquafeed and improve shrimp growth and product quality; 2) many agricultural and fishery byproducts in Hawaii are rich in nutrient contents such as essential amino acids and fatty acids, and can be integrated into aquafeed productions; 3) biofloc from shrimp culture tanks can enhance shrimp growth performance; 4) bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and bromophenols can affect shrimp product quality such as flavor and color appearance; and 5) shrimp product has high protein content and low lipid content, its major lipid content is phospholipids. Finally, the development of standard research diets where ingredients were defined, open ingredient formulation with defined nutrient profiles of the diet and processing equipment set up, and processing conditions (temperature, moisture and time profiles) were documented and opened for the SRD feeds made for Pacific Threadfin (Moi), Pacific white shrimp, Longfin Amberjack (Kahala), Opihi (Limpet), Sea Urchin and Abalone Enzo.