1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
The objectives of this cooperative research project are to: (1) Determine nutrient requirements of target aquatic species and develop viable diet formulations as a foundation for commercial industry development; (2) Identify and characterize regionally based plant and animal co-products as ingredients for aquatic feeds; and, (3) Develop commercially-applicable ingredient and feed processing techniques that optimize economic potential and limit waste.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Research will utilize tank and laboratory based trials to define key dietary requirements of Pacific white shrimp and marine fish of local interest (Pacific threadfin and amberjack); and, with PBARC, utilize molecular methods to identify expression sequences applicable to selective breeding and/or genetic modification. Efforts will also target novel and value-added regional plant and animal feedstuffs and waste-stream co-products from the biofuels and rendering industries in diets for target species. This project will also determine nutrient content, functional properties, nutrient digestibility, and attractability of potential ingredients and, with PBARC, identify and overcome anti-nutritional properties of novel ingredients through selective breeding and/or genetic modification. In addition, scale-up grinding, mixing, agglomeration, pre-conditioning, and post-conditioning methods applicable to commercial feed milling operations will be developed.
3. Progress Report
Determine nutrient requirements of target species and develop viable diet formulations as a foundation for commercial industry development: Dietary methionine (Met) and histidine (His) requirement for Pacific threadfin: Two 8-week feeding trials were conducted to determine Met requirement. The trial failed to establish Met requirements due to cataracts in fish for un-identified reasons. Optimal dietary protein and energy for Pacific threadfin: This study showed that 41% dietary protein can support the maximum growth rate of fish. There was no different effect on growth performance with a diet containing 10% or 14% lipid. The current commercial feed used in Moi culture is over formulated with protein and energy. The results were published in Aquaculture. Optimal feeding rate for Pacific threadfin: Three growth trials have been conducted to determine the optimal feeding rate for Pacific threadfin ranging from 3 g to 75g under laboratory conditions. A feeding table will be based on growth rate and nutrient utilization. Data is in the process of analysis and will be summarized for publication. Dietary Lysine requirement of Pacific white shrimp: An 8-week growth trial was conducted to establish a purified diet for the lysine requirement study under a flow through water system. No further study was conducted because Shrimp study was put on hold by ADODR of the project. Identify and characterize regionally based plant and animal co-products as ingredients for aquatic feeds. Nutrient analyses of Island co-products: A defatted algal meal (Haematococcus pluvialis) a co-product from Hawaii was characterized as a potential feed protein ingredient. Crude protein, lipid, fiber, minerals, gross energy, amino acids, and carotenoids were analyzed; data were used to formulate diets for fish and shrimp. A defatted microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis) meal was used as a protein ingredient to partially replace fishmeal in diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). A growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the partial replacement of fishmeal protein with a defatted microalgae meal (DMM) in shrimp diets. The results from this study provide important information regarding the potential application of DMM as a valuable alternative protein and natural pigment source for shrimp culture. Develop commercially applicable feed processing techniques that optimize economic potential and limit waste: Developing a standard reference diet (SRD) for Shrimp, Moi and Kahala: In an Aquatic Feeds and Nutrition (AFN) workshop, three Standard Research Diets were manufactured for the Pacific White Shrimp, the Pacific Threadfin and the Kahala, where the nutrient profile, ingredient content, extrusion configuration, and processing parameters where defined in each of the feeds made. This project is monitored through meetings, conference calls, email communication, and on-site visits.