Location: Tropical Crops and Germplasm Research2009 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
In cooperation with staff at the ARS Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, Georgia, conserve and distribute a wide spectrum of sorghum genetic diversity and associated information to researchers and breeders worldwide. Phenotypically evaluate sorghum genetic resources for priority morphological and phenological characters, disease resistance, and other priority agronomic traits, and incorporate data into GRIN and/or other databases.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Conduct field seed increase to regenerate approximately 500 sorghum accessions with critically low seed quality or quantity to conserve the collection. Use technical information derived from sorghum germplasm evaluations to assist NPGS staff to aid in the conservation, introduction, and distribution of sorghum germplasm. Phenotypically evaluate the 1,227 sorghum accessions from the Zimbabwe collection and use this information to evaluate genetic diversity for sorghum improvement. Using passport and phenotypic evaluation data develop germplasm subset for disease evaluation to identify ecogeographic regions associated with resistance and develop genetic mapping populations to evaluate genetic diversity for disease resistance.
3. Progress Report
Seed increases were conducted for 100 accessions with low seed quantities. A phenotypic evaluation of 245 accessions from the Zimbabwe collection was completed. A two-year study evaluating the germplasm collections from Botswana and Burundi for resistance to anthracnose was completed. The ecogeographic evaluation of anthracnose resistance was completed for the Mali sorghum collection. Two sorghum germplasm subsets were developed for the Ethiopian collection and a field evaluation of anthracnose resistance was completed. Crosses were conducted for the sorghum germplasm lines selected to evaluate variation in the anthracnose pathogen in order to develop populations to determine the genes responsible for conferring host-plant resistance. A field study to evaluate sorghum germplasm for acid soil tolerance was carried out.
1. Anthracnose resistant germplasm identified from the Botswana sorghum collection. The development of disease resistant sorghum hybrids requires the identification of new sources of host-plant resistance from germplasm collections representing different regions of Africa to increase the genetic diversity of resistant sources. A field evaluation study was conducted for 154 accessions from the Botswana collection. Plants were inoculated with anthracnose to create epidemic conditions. Thirty percent of the accessions showed no disease development on inoculated leaves. The resistant accessions will provide additional sources of host-plant resistance for sorghum breeders developing high yielding hybrids with anthracnose resistance.
Erpelding, J.E. 2008. Field evaluation of foliar anthracnose disease response for sorghum germplasm from the Matabeleland North Province of Zimbabwe. African Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol 3(11), pp. 792-796.
Erpelding, J.E. 2008. Field evaluation of anthracnose resistance for sorghum germplasm from the Sikasso region in Mali. The Open Agriculture Journal. (2):113-120.
Prom, L.K., Perumal, R., Erpelding, J.E., Isakeit, T., Montes-Garcia, N., Magill, C.W. 2009. A pictorial technique for mass screening of sorghum germplasm for anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) resistance. Open Agriculture Journal. 3:20-25.