Location: Immunity and Disease Prevention Research2013 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Our objectives are to determine: 1) the relative absorption (plasma response) of beta-cryptoxanthin (CX) and beta-carotene (BC); 2) the relative transfer of CX and BC to breastmilk; and 3) the relative Vitamin A (VA)potential of CX and BC (breastmilk retinol responses).
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Exclusively breastfeeding Bangladeshi women with marginal vitamin A status will be randomly assigned to receive 0.5 mg RAE/d, 6 d/week, for 6 weeks, as either 1) tangerines (CX), 2) orange sweet potatoes (BC), or 3) 0.5 mg RAE as retinyl acetate plus a low carotenoid fruit (apple). Breastmilk and plasma samples will be collected at baseline and weekly for measurement of CX, BC and VA. Test foods will be provided as daily snacks between meals, twice per day. The change in plasma and breastmilk concentrations of CX, BC and VA will be calculated and examined by treatment group using analysis of covariance, and used to compare the effectiveness of CX- and BC-rich fruits and vegetables as sources of vitamin A to the mother and child. Documents Reimbursable NRI Grant. Log 35592.
3. Progress Report:
This is the final report for this project which was terminated in February of 2013. The research relates to objective 3 of the inhouse project, “Examine the absorption of B-cryptoxanthin (CX) from supplements and foods, its contribution to vitamin A stores, and the impact of CX, other carotenoids and vitamin A on immune function". The human study was completed, and all carotenoid concentrations measured. A manuscript about the most important results was drafted and is in review at the American Journal of Nutrition. Beta-cryptoxanthin from mandarin oranges was highly bioavailable, appearing in high concentration in both blood and breast milk. Thus, it might be a source of vitamin A for the infant. Differences in carotenoid and retinoid concentrations had little impact on iron status, or on the immune status markers tested: IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF gamma.