1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
1) Strategically expand and improve collections of priority genetic resources of citrus and date palm and associated information. 2) Conserve and propagate citrus and date genetic resources efficiently and effectively, and distribute pathogen-tested samples and associated information worldwide. 3) Strategically characterize (“genotype”) and evaluate (“phenotype”) citrus and date palm genetic resources for priority genetic and horticultural traits. 3A) Recover citrus germplasm exposed to Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, and evaluate citrus relatives for tolerance or resistance to psyllids and/or HLB. (NP 301; Component 1; Problem Statement 1A) 4) Develop more rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for priority graft-transmissible pathogens of citrus to promote exchange of pathogen-tested stock and efficiently screen for host-plant resistance.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
New accessions will be acquired through exchange with university breeders, foreign country national programs, botanical gardens, or by plant exploration. New accessions will be quarantined, indexed and therapied before being available for distribution, and they will be characterized using the ‘Descriptors for Citrus’ published by IPGRI. In addition to distribution of germplasm, information on the accessions is disseminated via the GRIN website/server and the Repository website. The ‘genotype’ and ‘phenotype’ of citrus and date palm genetic resources will be characterized for priority genetic and horticultural traits, such as level of antioxidants and the tolerance/resistance to selected diseases. Using SSR markers and by sequence analyses of selected regions of the chromosomal DNA, the genetic variability of core accessions of orange hybrids and major groups will be examined and used to determine ancestral origin. Laboratory-based diagnostic methods will be developed for citrus vein enation and citrus concave gum disease, presently detectable only by biological indexing on indicator plants. Diagnostic tests for huanglongbing disease will be utilized to screen subsets of citrus genetic resources so as to identify new sources of host-plant resistance/tolerance to this disease. Replaces 5310-21000-008-00D (3/08).
3. Progress Report
The National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus and Dates (NCGRCD) is both a service and research unit with a mission to collect, maintain, preserve, evaluate, and distribute germplasm of citrus, citrus relatives, and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), and to develop sensitive and better diagnostic methods to promote exchange of pathogen tested stock, recover citrus germplasm exposed to Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, and evaluate citrus relatives for tolerance or resistance to psyllids and/or HLB. The NCGRCD is located on the campus of the University of California, Riverside (UCR) and supports NP 301 Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics, and Genetic Improvement. The NCGRCD is playing an important role in preserving, maintaining and cleaning germplasm from Florida where the germplasm is threatened by huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker and also in California where the Asian citrus psyllid is now established in Imperial, San Diego, Los Angeles, and Orange counties. The NCGRCD contains several collections: The pathogen-tested protected collection with about 450 accessions which are used for distributions of budwood, the citrus variety collection with over 1,100 accessions (owned by UCR but utilized by NCGRCD for seed collection, evaluation, DNA extractions, and pollen collection), the citrus relatives collection, and the date palm collection, located at CVARS near Thermal, CA. In FY11, 1294 distributions were made. Research accomplishments include the construction of metagenomic BAC libraries using the genomic DNA of Bactericera cockerelli, the psyllid vector of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous, evaluation of 87 genotypes of citrus and citrus relatives for colonization by Diaphorina citri, and characterization of the Alpha Proteobacteria in Citrus and Citrus relatives.
Barkley, N.L., Krueger, R., Federici, C.T., Roose, M.L. 2009. What phylogeny and gene genealogy analyses reveal about homoplasy in citrus microsatellite alleles. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 282:71-86.