1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
The long-term objectives of this project are the following: 1) Develop improved varieties of pea, chickpea, and lentil that have enhanced resistance to diseases and abiotic stresses along with improved nutritional and processing traits; 2) Characterize the genetic basis for agronomically important traits in pea, lentil and chickpea; 3) Identify and characterize the genetic domains in pathogens of these crops that are responsible for disease, and 4) Develop improved methods for detecting pathogens and screening for disease resistance.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Identify and select improved germplasm and cultivars for pea, lentil, and chickpea through systematic evaluation under biotic and abiotic stress conditions to identify tolerant or resistant types for release to stakeholders.Identify genetic factors through classical breeding methods contributing to cold tolerance and winter hardiness in pea and lentil germplasm. Saturate genetic maps for the genomic regions that control Ascochyta blight resistance (ABR) in chickpea for fine mapping and identification of molecular markers for selection. Saturate genetic maps to identify markers linked to a broad range of agronomically important traits in pea, lentil, and chickpea. Increase mechanistic understanding of host-pathogen interactions to improve breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance in pea, lentil, and chickpea by challenging plants with respective pathogens and studying disease responses and pathogen biology. Formerly 5348-21000-014-00D (3/08).
3. Progress Report
A total of 54 advanced spring lentil breeding lines, 36 advanced spring pea and 25 advanced chickpea lines were evaluated in 2011 in field trials conducted in Washington, Idaho, Montana and North Dakota. Breeder seed is being produced of lentil line LC01602300R, a promising Richlea type lentil that will be considered for release as a new variety. Pre-breeder seed is being produced this year from four pea, four lentil, and four chickpea advanced breeding lines. Efforts to control diseases of peas, chickpeas, and lentils are largely focused on identifying sources of disease resistance in these crop species. Peas were screened in the field for resistance to Fusarium wilt and chickpeas were screened in the field for resistance to Ascochyta blight. Field trials were also conducted to examine the efficacy of several foliar fungicide sprays for the control of Ascochyta blight of chickpea. Improving the nutritional quality of pulse seeds is also a priority for our breeding program. All advanced pea, lentil, and chickpea breeding lines were evaluated in 2011 for several essential micronutrient and macronutrient minerals in seeds harvested from three locations in WA and ID. Lines with significantly higher levels of seed minerals have been identified for all three crops and will be used as parental materials for developing new varieties and germplasm with enhanced nutritional quality. Considerable research efforts have been conducted in the laboratory to identify genes and biochemical processes involved in the development of Ascochyta blight disease and Sclerotinia white mold of pulse crops. Mutants of both pathogens have been made that are incapable of causing disease, presumably because we have ‘knocked-out’ genes important to disease development. We have also developed tools to examine differences in gene activity in pea and lentil under conditions of cold stress and disease.
1. Release of eight pea germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to Aphanomyces root rot. Aphanomyces root rot of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the most globally destructive root disease of pea, causing severe production losses in the US, Europe, and New Zealand. There are no effective chemical or cultural methods available for controlling disease and genetic resistance is lacking in commercial pea cultivars. In 2011, ARS scientists in Pullman, WA, released eight pea germplasm lines (PI 660729 – PI 660736) that have high levels of resistance to Aphanomyces root rot coupled with desirable production traits including seed quality and tolerance to lodging. Because of the lack of resistance in commercial varieties, growers in the US often can only plant peas for a year or two at any location before they have to abandon the ground because of disease pressure. The resistant germplasm we have released is being used as parental materials in the development of elite commercial varieties that can be grown on land previously abandoned for pea production.
Chen, W. 2011. Other fungal diseases of chickpea and lentil. In: Chen, W., Sharma, H.C.; Muehlbauer, F.J., editors. Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests. St Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society. p. 62-63.
Bayaa, B., Chen, W. 2011. Ascochyta blight of chickpea. Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests. p. 34-40.
Njambere, E., Chen, W. 2011. Sclerotinia stem and crown rot of chickpea. Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests. p. 55-58.
Njambere, E., Chen, W. 2011. Collar rot. In: Chen, W., Sharma, H.C.; Muehlbauer, F.J., editors. Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests. St Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society. p. 13-15.
Skoglund, L. G., Harveson, R. M., Chen, W., Dugan, F., Schwartz, H. F., Markell, S. G., Porter, L., Burrows, M. L., and Goswami, R. 2011. Ascochyta blight of peas. Plant Health Progress DOI: 10.1094/PHP-2011-0330-01-RS
Chen, W., Paulitz, T.C. 2011. Black Streak Root Rot of Lentil. In: Chen, W., Sharma, H.C.; Muehlbauer, F.J., editors. Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests. St Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society. p. 12-13.
Chen, W., Bayaa, B. 2011. Fusarium wilt of lentil. In: Chen, W., Sharma, H.C.; Muehlbauer, F.J., editors. Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests. St Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society. p. 20-22.
Vandemark, G.J., Mcphee, K., Muehlbauer, F.J. 2011. Registration of "Essex" lentil. Journal of Plant Registrations. 5:14-19.
Saha, G., Sarker, A., Chen, W., Vandemark, G.J., Muehlbauer, F.J. 2010. Identification of markers associated with genes for rust resistance in lens culinaris medik. Euphytica. 175 (2):261-265.
Thavarajah, D., Thavarajah, P., Sarker, A., Materne, M., Vandemark, G.J., Shrestha, R., Idrissi, O., Hacikamiloglu, O., Bucak, B., Vandenberg, A. 2011. A global survey of effects of genotype and environment on selenium concentration in lentils (Lens culinaris L.): Implications for nutritional fortification strategies. Food Chemistry. 125:72-76.
Chen, W. 2011. Dry root rot of chickpea. Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests. p. 15-16.
Zhang, X., Scheuring, C.F., Zhang, M., Dong, J.J., Zhang, Y., Huang, J.J., Lee, M., Abbo, S., Sherman, A., Shtienberg, D., Chen, W., Muehlbauer, F.J., Zhang, H. 2011. A BAC/BIBAC-based physical map of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.. Biomed Central (BMC) Genomics. 11:501.
Harveson, R. M., Markell, S. G., Goswami, R., Urrea, C. A., Burrows, M. E., Dugan, F., Chen, W., and Skoglund, L. G. 2011. Ascochyta blight of chickpeas. Plant Health Progress DOI: 10.1094/PHP-2011-0103-01-DG.
Dugan, F.M., Attanayake, K., Glawe, D., Chen, W. 2011. Powdery Mildew of Chickpea. Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests. p. 51-52.
Attanayake, K., Chen, W., Glawe, D., Dugan, F.M. 2011. Powdery mildew of lentil. Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests. p. 49-51.
Saha, G., Sarker, A., Chen, W., Vandemark, G.J., Muehlbauer, F.J. 2010. Inheritance and linkage map positions of genes conferring resistance to stemphylium blight in lentil. Crop Science. 50 (5):1831-1839.
Hamon, C., Baranger, A., Coyne, C.J., Mcgee, R.J., Le Goff, I., L Anthoene, V., Esnault, R., Riviere, J., Klein, A., Mangin, P., Mcphee, K.E., Roux-Duparque, M., Porter, L., Miteul, H., Lesne, A., Morin, G., Onfroy, C., Moussart, A., Tivoli, B., Delourme, R., Pilet Nayel, M. 2011. New consistent QTL in pea associated with partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches in multiple field and controlled environments from France and the United States. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 123:261-281.
Chen, W., Manjarrez-Sandoval, P. 2011. Downy mildews. Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests. p. 48-49.
Paldi, N., Glick, E., Oliva, M., Zilbeberg, Y., Aubin, L., Pettis, J.S., Chen, Y., Evans, J.D. 2010. Effective gene silencing of a microsporidian parasite associated with honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony declines. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 76:5960-5964.