Location: Plant Genetic Resources Research2010 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
1. Strategically expand the genetic diversity in genebank collections and improve associated information for priority buckwheat, tomato, cole crops, bulb and bunching onions, and other specialty vegetable crops (celery, radish, asparagus, winter squash, and tomatillo) and their wild relatives. 2. Conserve and regenerate priority buckwheat, tomato, cole crop, bulb and bunching onion, and other specialty vegetable crop (celery, radish, asparagus, winter squash, and tomatillo) genetic resources efficiently and effectively, and distribute pathogen-tested samples (whenever feasible) and associated information worldwide. 3. Strategically characterize (“genotype”) and evaluate (“phenotype”) priority buckwheat, tomato, cole crop, bulb and bunching onion, and other specialty vegetable crop (celery, radish, asparagus, winter squash, tomatillo) genetic resources for molecular markers and highly heritable horticultural and morphological traits.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
The objectives of this project will be met by a) expanding the genetic diversity in genebank collections and improving associated information for priority buckwheat, tomato, cole crops, bulb and bunching onions, and other specialty vegetable crops (celery, radish, asparagus, winter squash, and tomatillo) and their wild relatives, b) conserving and regenerating genetic resources of these taxa efficiently and effectively, and distributing pathogen-tested samples (whenever feasible) and associated information worldwide, and c) characterizing (“genotype”) and evaluating (“phenotype”) genetic resources of these taxa for molecular markers and highly heritable horticultural and morphological traits. In the next five years the major activities of the project will emphasize upgrading standards for viability and number of seed stored in the active and base collections. Characterization for minimal descriptor lists will be completed for tomatoes, Crucifers, and onions. The primary link with users will be through Crop Germplasm Committees that define crop priorities for collection and evaluation.
3. Progress Report
Wild tomato Lycopersicon peruvianum has been reclassified into four new Solanum spp. taxa. We grew 120 PGRU accessions in the field in 2009 and reclassified them using the new taxonomic keys. Leaves, flowers and fruits of all accessions were scanned. The reclassification of wild tomato accessions based on their revised taxonomy will ensure that stakeholders can obtain field-verified material. In addition to standard characterization activity during routine regenerations, 51 tomato lines were grown in Geneva, NY in 2010 as part of a ‘fruit shape diversity’ National Science Foundation grant awarded to (The Ohio State Univ). We evaluated these lines plus 52 obsolete varieties for fruit nutritional traits and morphology. In addition, we collaborated with Research Chemist (USDA-ARS) for performing precision assays on tomato fruit samples in a subset of these lines. High performance liquid chromatography will be used for identification and measurement of nitrogen-containing metabolites. These compounds regulate chemical processes and influence fruit ripening and fruit quality in various crops and are an important class of natural products that contribute to quality and utilization and include essential nutrients that can influence mood and mental well-being. Based on passport data, we estimate that 15% or more of the 5,800 accessions of domesticated tomato at the PGRU may be unwanted duplicates. Molecular markers are one line of evidence to support de-accessioning of materials, but the process of refining holdings does not rely solely on molecular genotyping of accessions. We use a two-pronged approach to identify duplicates. First, passport data, especially plant IDs, have been used to identify putative duplicates for de-accessioning. Second, molecular genetic methodologies for identification of duplicates are being designed and applied. We have completed genotyping of 46 representative samples of duplicate San Marzano, Baltimore and Globe varieties using 17 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and are in the process of data analysis for reporting. Markers and methodologies that were developed and tested during this project plan will be used to genotype putative duplicate accessions in future project plans. Tomato breeders and researchers have observed that genetic variation within tomato is oftentimes associated with genes that were introduced by breeding with wild tomato species, so-called “introgressions”. In some instances, introgressions of valuable genes such as disease resistance have been correlated with undesirable effects on the crop such as reductions in yield. We have completed analysis of 50 genes in wild tomato species in order to compare them to cultivated tomato genes to study the consequences of introgressions. All data have been scored and are currently being analyzed by a second software program to ensure quality control and high confidence in the results. This study will provide estimates of the extent of introduction of unwanted genes into tomato as a result of crosses with wild relatives, and will help improve methods for eliminating unwanted wild genes using molecular markers.
5. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
The Northern Organic Vegetable Improvement Collaborative (NOVIC) is the result of a new Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement (RCA) with Oregon State University, USDA, ARS – Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Geneva, NY, Cornell University’s Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, the University of Wisconsin, Washington State University and the Organic Seed Alliance. This RCA serves small-scale seed producers and farmer plant breeders in the organic farming community throughout the country but with an emphasis in the Northern United States. PGRU’s main focus in the NOVIC RCA is centered on outreach activities and training in small-scale seed production and processing. In addition to providing training in seed production, PGRU is also responsible for the dissemination of information concerning winter squash pollination techniques, methods of preventing undesired outcrossing and how to best harvest and store winter squash seed to the traditionally underserved organic farming community. This information will be available through the Organic Seed Partnership website (www.organicseedpartnership.org), eOrganic (eOrganic.info), eXention (eXtension.org) and during workshops and presentations. The OSP website has been updated to reflect the NOVIC goals and events and has had over 1,800 hits since March 2010. The site has been viewed by stakeholders in 38 countries and in 20 different languages. For FY10, three events were held at the Common Ground Country Fair, Unity, ME to help organic farmers and small-scale seed producers in farmer-led participatory plant breeding and seed production. In August 2010, a one-day plant breeding and seed production workshop was held at Cornell University’s organic farm in Freeville, NY. In September 2010, PGRU staff returned to the Common Ground Country Fair in Unity, ME for three days of seed production training and during the same weekend in September, additional PGRU staff will be presented NOVIC at the Mother Earth News Fair in Seven Springs, PA for the first of what PGRU hopes to be an additional annual trip to enhance the education of organic farmers in seed production and work accomplished through the NOVIC RCA.
Kopsell, D.A., Carl, S., Deyton, D., Abney, K., Kopsell, D., Robertson, L.D. 2010. Characterization of Nutritionally Important Carotenoids in Welsh Onion Accessions. HortScience. 45(3):463-465.