Location: Crop Genetics Research2009 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
Objective 1: Organize, collect data, analyze, and report the NCVT. Objective 2: Estimate variety (V), environmental (E), and their interaction components (VE) and relate results to improved breeding and evaluation of varieties for specific environments. Objective 3: Measure the genetic progress in yield, yield components, and fiber traits. Objective 4: Evaluate variety, environmental, and their variety x environmental contributions of fiber and seed traits that are not usually evaluated in variety tests.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Organize and design annual tests, assemble data, analyze, publish and communicate results to cooperators and the public. Archive and make database available to cooperators. Reinforce ARS genetic fiber quality studies. Perform or assist in special variety, years, and location analyses. Update variety evaluations by using the latest technology improvements in computer and statistical services and fiber quality instrumentation. Use NCVT database to detect long term and regional trends in yield and seed and fiber quality. Explore the use of molecular markers (RFLPs) to fingerprint varieties and genetic populations. Utilize database to associate environmental effects on cotton. Utilize residual fiber samples to correlate data from new instrumentation with database. Utilize seed and fiber samples from the NCVT to measure the genetic, environmental, and their interactions on new traits.
3. Progress Report
Variance components for data collected for the 2001 through 2007 testing years were estimated from the Regional High Quality (RHQ) Tests. The data involved 10 states, 56 location-year environments, and 102 strains and varieties. Of major interest was the comparison of seed traits with the yield and fiber traits. No previous research has had the volume of environments and genotypes to make such comparisons. The proportion of plus and minus gossypol was found to have the highest genetic expression of any trait. Its genetic component accounted for 66.2% of all the variation. The highest percent of total variation for any yield component was 20.4% for lint percentage. The highest for any fiber trait was 35.6% for upper half mean length. Oil genotypic component was 37.2%. In the same study, genetic correlations of major interest is oil% and yield with a genetic correlation of -0.24. Other genetic correlations with yield was N% with -0.35, lint % with 0.59, seed weight with -0.46, 50% span length at -0.63, fiber strength with -0.53 and micronaire with 0.46. These results again show the negative association between yield and major fiber traits. These genetic correlations show why modern varieties which were selected mainly for yield result in increased lint % and decrease in major fiber traits. Fatty acid quality, as measured in nine location-year RHQ plots, showed significant variation. But, the variation in desirable fatty acids was not large enough to change the general fatty acid profile to a desired size. The annual National Cotton Variety Testing (NCVT) committee met on January 7, 2009 in San Antonio, TX, where 17 scientists from a diverse background of organizations (public, private, government and academic) attended. Business conducted by the committee included a scientist from the University of Arkansas who was elected as the new Chairman of the NCVT, cost saving changes were incorporated by changing the laboratory conducting seed analysis, and simplifying the input and collection of data from cooperators. Major discussion involved how to end the three-year cycle of National Standards, specifically the handling of seed of DPL 555BR needed to complete the cycle through the 2010 season. The NCVT will celebrate its 50th anniversary in 2010. Several scientists in attendance at the meeting agreed to include some of the older varieties from the NCVT in their 2009 test for reporting in the 2010 anniversary presentation.
1. The Current Use of the Automated Fiber Information System (AFIS) is Very Slow. An investigation was made into a fiber blending device to increase the time management of the AFIS instrument. The effect of blending raw cotton reduced the number of replications required per sample from three to two. This enabled the AFIS laboratory to increase the processing and analysis of samples by 50%. Statistical studies showed that two replications of blended samples produced greater repeatability than three replications of raw unblended samples. This change provided greater statistical precision from two reps of blended samples than from processing three samples using the previous conventional method of analysis. Thus, the numbers of samples processed can be increased by 50%.