Location: Crop Germplasm Research2011 Annual Report
1. A saturated molecular genetic map for cotton. Genetic mapping of molecular markers to the 26 chromosomes of cotton is essential to the identification and location of genes on the chromosomes, and to understanding the genetic complexity of this important fiber and food crop. ARS scientists at College Station, TX, working with other ARS cooperators at New Orleans, LA, Shafter, CA, and Starkville, MS; university cooperators at Texas A&M University; and with private researchers at Dow AgroSciences and Monsanto Company, have finalized work on a saturated genetic map having 2,072 loci. The work confirmed two major chromosomal exchanges and several DNA duplications among and within the cotton chromosomes. This map constitutes an important resource for cotton geneticists and breeders worldwide, who conduct studies on germplasm characterization, gene discovery, molecular breeding, and the eventual assembly of finished genome sequence for cottons. Effective utilization of the map will accelerate the development of new and improved cotton types that will enhance the productivity and profitability of cotton grown by farmers in all production regions of the world.
2. Sequencing of Upland cotton chromosomes 12 and 26. Genetic improvements in Upland cotton yield and quality are needed to maintain cotton as one of the world’s most economically important crops. Understanding the genetic codes of various aspects of cotton development and production is necessary for significant further advancements. ARS researchers at College Station, TX, working with cooperators at the Cotton Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang, China, sequenced some 28 million base pairs of assembled nuclear DNA from chromosomes 12 and 26 of the complex Upland cotton genome. Detailed structural, functional, and comparative analyses of the DNA sequence data revealed the genome complexity and identified more than 1,000 genes of interest. This work provides a highly useful tool for cotton researchers throughout the world to use in their work to develop cottons with enhanced productivity and quality traits.
Xu, Z., Yu, J., Cho, J., Yu, J., Kohel, R.J., Percy, R.G. 2010. Polyploidization altered gene functions in cotton (Gossypium spp.). PLoS One. 5(12):e14351. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014351.