1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
Objective 1: Develop, evaluate, and apply molecular tools, including molecular genotyping and transposon tagging, to small grains genetics and germplasm enhancement research. Sub-objective 1.A. Identify and characterize genes involved in barley seed phytate content using Ds-generated (low phytate) LP insertion mutants. Sub-objective 1.B. Improve the Ogle1040/TAM O-301 (OT) genetic linkage map by 1) developing and mapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based markers and 2) physically anchoring linkage groups to chromosomes using aneuploid oat stocks. Objective 2: Identify, map, and develop molecular markers for disease resistance and quality genes, and use these resources to move favorable alleles from National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) accessions and other sources into adapted plant types. Sub-objective 2.A. Identify wheat and barley landraces from the NSGC likely to possess unexploited genes for resistance to new virulent races of the stem rust pathogen. Sub-objective 2.B. Introgress quantitative and qualitative resistance to barley stripe rust into adapted germplasm via marker assisted selection (MAS). Sub-objective 2.C. Identify, map, and develop molecular markers for quantitative trait loci (QTL) in barley cultivars Azhul and/or Falcon conditioning high ß-glucan (BG) levels. Sub-objective 2.D. Map and introgress resistance to crown rust of oat into high-yielding Aberdeen germplasm via MAS. Objective 3: Develop improved barley and oat cultivars meeting the needs of conventional and specialty markets for both dryland and irrigated production systems. Sub-objective 3.A. Develop improved spring and winter malt barley and specialty cultivars. Sub-objective 3.B. Develop oat cultivars combining the enhanced levels of disease resistance from southern U.S. with the superior yield and quality of ARS-Aberdeen lines. The objectives in our project are complementary and interconnected. Proven methods and existing germplasm will be used to develop commercial cultivars for growers, and innovative new resources will be developed to facilitate genetic investigations and to enhance the efficiency of future germplasm and cultivar development. These resources will be made available to other researchers and to the agribusiness community.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
This project seeks to generate improved small grains germplasm, including barley and oat cultivars, and to develop and use genomic tools that will facilitate future germplasm improvements. Most of the work will focus on barley and oat improvement. However, wheat stem rust screening of landrace accessions from the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) will be included as part of a coordinated ARS effort to mitigate the threat of emerging races. The germplasm improvement work for barley will focus on issues of importance in the intermountain west, such as improving winter malt barleys and developing specialty types to expand market opportunities for producers. The oat work has a more national focus with emphasis on disease resistance. The research aimed at improving methodologies and tools for genomic research and germplasm enhancement will produce new resources for researchers, such as Ds-generated mutant barley stocks, more PCR-based oat molecular, and a more complete oat genetic map. This project also seeks to integrate the work of several scientists to achieve greater efficiency and productivity by sharing facilities, materials, and ideas among the project team members. Replacing 5366-21000-016-00D. 7/2003 FY06 Program Increase $22,275 12/19/05 Replacing 5366-21000-024-00D 03/08;
3. Progress Report
We have developed whole seedling cDNA libraries for the parental lines of the Ogle/TAM O-301 and GS-7/Provena mapping populations. The libraries are being sequenced using 454 technology and the results will be used to develop the first SNP markers for oat. In addition, we are developing the first chromosome anchored linkage map for oat using single chromosome libraries developed by laser capture microdissection and subsequent whole genome amplification. We have constructed a high density molecular linkage map of barley using a Falcon/Azhul RIL population. This mapping population is now being used to determine QTL associated with high levels of beta glucan in Azhul, which is the source of beta glucan alleles being used in the majority of breeding programs. In addition to this work, we have genotyped a subset of the NSCG barley core collection to identify new alleles for improving beta glucan content using association genetics. Multiple barley populations containing genes for resistance to barley stripe rust were produced, evaluated for presence of markers associated with resistance, and field tested to determine their actual response to pathogen attack. Comparison of lab and field data is assisting the development of new markers with greater predictive value. Resistant lines have been identified. Over 1000 barley lines derived from 30 populations, including hulless, low-phytate, high beta-glucan lines, were advanced to initial field tests. Selected lines with superior appearance, yield, and grain characteristics were harvested for expanded testing in 2009. These items address NP 301, ARS Strategic Plan Goal # 2 (Enhance the Competitiveness and Sustainability of Rural and Farm Economies, subgoal 2.2.3): Develop and release crop germplasm with enhanced resistance to pests, pathogens, and weather damage; Produce tools to identify specific genes that lead to improved crop quality and composition of agricultural commodities; Make available crop, pest, pathogen, and beneficial organism genetic resources for research and development; and to Expand the genetic base of crops through recurrent genetic recombination and selection for adaptation so as to facilitate use by geneticists and breeders.
1. This project replaced 5366-21000-024-00D on March 2008. Please see that report for Fiscal Year 2008 accomplishments.
5. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations