Location: Sugarcane Field Station2010 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
1. Develop more efficient breeding and selection methodologies for cultivar development and to produce seed of selected sugarcane germplasm for use in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. 2. Develop better agronomic practices for the Florida sugarcane industry. 3. Identify alleles or genes that can be used in molecular marker-assisted selection to complement the conventional approach of sugarcane cultivar development. 4. Identify agronomic and physiological relationships of sugarcane with stress tolerance to improve sugarcane cultivar development.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Development of new cultivars with disease resistance, freeze tolerance, and high sucrose content will be advanced through genetic and genomics approaches. These will involve the utilization of a sugarcane genetic map with quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the identification of variation in candidate genes through gene expression profiling, and in some cases through developing markers for gene insertions. To improve cultivar development on sand soils, genetic studies will compare selection efficiencies on organic and sand soils and repeatability between selection stages, and agronomic research will seek useful traits for identifying high-yielding genotypes on sand soils. Agronomic research will also seek useful traits for identifying tolerance to shallow water tables on organic soils, and will examine sampling procedures for estimating fiber content.
3. Progress Report
Production of older cultivars is reduced as new diseases and new races of current diseases infect previously resistant cultivars. The most recent challenge facing Florida sugarcane growers is the introduction of orange rust. However, production remains high across the industry due to the availability of new cultivars. True seeds, developed from crosses at Canal Point, FL were sent to the ARS cultivar development program in Louisiana, and the Texas A&M program in Texas. About 106,104 seeds from 483 crosses were sent to Louisiana; about 49,900 seeds from 197 crosses were sent to Texas; and it is estimated that 319,985 seeds from 956 crosses remained in Florida. Cultivars developed by ARS occupy more than 92.8% of the sugarcane acreage in Florida. This breeding and selection program develops sugarcane cultivars for sand and organic (muck) soils in Florida. In 2010, a growers’ meeting was held to report on newly released sugarcane cultivars in Florida and on promising sugarcane varieties being evaluated in the CP (Canal Point) program. Presentations reported that CP 03-1912 and CPCL 00-4111 were the most promising new varieties in the program. CP 03-1912 is recommended for sand soils and CPCL 00-4111 for muck soils. It was also reported that the CP program has made recent improvements in identifying higher yielding sugarcane varieties for sand soils in Florida. In addition to CP 03-1912, two recently released varieties, CP 00-1101 and CP 01-1372, are being expanded rapidly by growers with sand soils, and it was reported that the CP program has three varieties in the pipeline that may be released next year, all of which are promising for sand soils. Also, it was reported that the CP program has changed strategies on selecting varieties with resistance to two rust diseases, and that while the effectiveness of these new strategies will not be known with certainty for several years, early indications are positive.