Location: Cereal Crops Research2013 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
The objectives of this cooperative research project are: 1) Characterize the genes/QTLs controlling resistance to three fungal diseases, including Fusarium head blight (FHB), tan spot, and Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), in domesticated emmer wheat, and 2) to exploit the novel resistance genes for developing durum wheat germplasm adapted to the Northern Great Plains.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
We previously identified a number of Persian wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. carthlicum) and cultivated emmer wheat (T. dicoccum) accessions with resistance to FHB, tan spot, and SNB. We are currently transferring the resistance from some of these accessions into ND durum cultivars using the backcross method coupled with doubled haploid (DH) and single-seed descent (SSD). We have developed approximately 500 DH and 591 BC1-derived lines from crosses of five T. carthlicum and four T. dicoccum accessions with four durum cultivars (Lebsock, Ben, Mountrail, and Maier). In this project, we will evaluate the DH and BC1F1-derived (BC1F4 and BC1F5) lines for resistance to the three diseases in greenhouse and field nurseries. The 10 DH and BC1F5-derived lines with the highest level of resistance will be used as donors for the second cycle of introgression. In addition, we will initiate the introgression of the resistance from additional 10 T. carthlicum and T. dicoccum accessions with potential novel genes for a high level of resistance to the three diseases at the tetraploid level. The selected DH and BC1-derived lines and the T. carthlicum and T. dicoccum accessions first will be crossed with the durum cultivars Maier and Divide. The F1 hybrids will be backcrossed with their durum parents to produce BC1 seeds. All the BC1F1 plants will be evaluated for Type II FHB resistance in the greenhouse. The BC1F2 plants derived from the BC1F1 plants with low infection will be advanced to the BC1F5 through evaluation and selection. The resistance in the BC1F5-derived lines will be validated by evaluating the lines using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in greenhouse and field nurseries in two locations. The BC1F5-derived lines with a high level of FHB resistance will be further evaluated for resistance to tan spot and SNB. The elite lines with multiple resistances will be used for further introgression and durum wheat breeding. To characterize the genes/QTLs controlling the resistance to FHB and SNB in tetraploid wheat, we have developed a population (LP749) consisting of 146 DH lines from a cross between the durum cultivar Lebsock and T. carthlicum accession PI 94749, which is resistant to FHB and SNB. The population will be used for developing linkage maps of all 14 chromosomes consisting of about 300 SSR markers, and then it will be evaluated for reaction to FHB and SNB. SNB evaluation will be conducted in three replicated experiments under controlled conditions. FHB evaluation will be performed for at least three seasons in greenhouse. The FHB and SNB phenotypic values will then be regressed on the marker data using single-factor regression, simple interval mapping, and composite interval mapping to identify QTLs associated with FHB and SNB resistance. In addition, we will initiate the development of a tetraploid recombinant inbred (RI) population derived from a cross between the emmer wheat accession PI41025 (with resistance to the three diseases) and the susceptible durum variety Ben. Approximately 150 RI lines will be developed from this cross using the SSD method and advanced to the F6:7 generation.
3. Progress Report:
Introgression of the FHB resistance from T. carthlicum and T. dicoccum into ND durum cultivars was continued in fiscal year 2013. During this period, 30 BC1-derived advanced lines (BC1F7-10) and DH lines with improved FHB resistance derived from T. dicoccum, T. carthlicum, and the hexaploid wheat line PI 277012 were evaluated in the greenhouse and three FHB nurseries (Fargo, Langdon, and Prosper) in the summer of 2012 and they were further evaluated in two FHB nurseries (Fargo and Prosper) in the summer of 2013. Seven BC1-derived advanced (BC1F7-10) lines (10FAR2627, 10FAR2891, 08F285, 08G33, 08G105, 07F459, and 10FAR2778) and a DH line (LP102-14) have been backcrossed with three new ND cultivars ‘Tioga’, ‘Carpio’, and ‘Joppa’. The BC1F2 progeny from 170 BC1F1 plants were evaluated in the greenhouse and in three FHB nurseries (Fargo, Langdon, and Prosper) in the summer of 2012. Over 3,000 heads were selected from three locations and about 30 BC1F2 plants with improved FHB resistance were selected based on the greenhouse results. Approximately 600 BC1F3 progenies are growing in two FHB nurseries (Fargo and Prosper) and greenhouse for evaluation and generation advance in the summer of 2013. To transfer the 5A QTL derived from T. timopheevii PI 343447 into ND durum cultivars, spring wheat line TC67 carrying the 5A QTL from PI 343447 has been crossed and backcrossed with Divide, Tioga, Carpio, and Joppa. Approximately 70 BC1F1 plants from each of the backcrosses are being evaluated in the greenhouse in the summer of 2013. In addition, two wheat-Elymus tsukushiensis translocation lines TA5660 and TA5661, with novel FHB resistance developed by Dr. Bernd Friebe, have been crossed to Tioga, Carpio, and Joppa. The F1 hybrids will be backcrossed with their respective durum parents. Molecular mapping of FHB resistance derived from T. dicoccum accession PI 41025 and hexaploid wheat line PI 277012 was continued. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 200 F2:7 lines derived from PI 41025 and ND durum cultivar Ben was previously evaluated for Type II resistance for three greenhouse seasons. In 2013, we genotyped this population with a wheat 9000-SNP array and identified 2,490 polymorphic SNP markers. We are currently developing a SNP map and performing QTL analysis to identify the FHB-resistant QTLs in PI 41025. We previously mapped two major FHB resistance QTLs on chromosome arms 5AS and 5AL in PI 277012 using an SSR-based linkage map in a population of 130 DH lines from the cross between PI 277012 and spring wheat cultivar ‘Grandin’. In 2013, we genotyped the DH population using the wheat 9000-SNP array and identified 4,317 polymorphic SNP markers. A saturated map is currently being developed with the SNP markers and being used for saturation mapping of the 5AS and 5AL QTLs.