Location: Mosquito and Fly Research2012 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
(1) Demonstrate a strategy for area-wide Aedes albopictus control; (2) demonstrate the public health importance and socio-economic benefits of area-wide mosquito control; and (3) transfer the strategy to end-users of the technology.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Will establish and implement an areawide pest management research and action program for Asian tiger mosquito management which (a) results from a stakeholder partnership and collaboration dedicated to the demonstration and areawide adoption of Asian tiger mosquito control technologies and (b) achieves an Asian tiger mosquito management system so end-users, consultants and other interested parties will be left with an affordable program. This will require the development of a multidisciplinary approach between Federal, State, local and private interests, and whose participants will be involved in the program from conception to adoption.
3. Progress Report:
FY2011 activities at 6 sites in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey (NJ) ended in November 2011 when no traps had Asian Tiger mosquitoes (ATM). A 50%-60% reduction in adult ATM was achieved in the Full Intervention sites in both counties. Area-wide applications of pyriproxyfen had a significant effect on adult ATM and egg production that were, however, equivalent to Bti. The objectives for 2012 were primarily to (1) test definitively the effect of early season larvicide applications on ATM adult populations; (2) test if differences in the way ATM populations in urban and suburban NJ react to area-wide control reflect differences of larval production sites – specifically if Mercer County ATM populations explore more open containers while Monmouth County ATM populations explore cryptic habitats such as catch basins and rain gutter flexi-tubes; (3) Produce a series of Standard Operating Procedures to be provided to other mosquito control programs interested in controlling ATM; (4) Engage a series of mosquito control programs across the U.S. to test the strategies developed in the Area-wide ATM program. The weather patterns in New Jersey each year of the ATM project have been considerably different and record breaking. In 2011 we had very warm weather from spring to fall, and an especially wet summer, with an unusual hurricane with record rains at the end of August. In 2012 we experienced an unprecedented warm winter and spring leading to exceptionally high populations of ATM in Monmouth, as predicted by the temperature model we are developing, and predicted also ATM populations in inner city Trenton, very urban, have been depressed. The weather has proven a challenge, especially for surveillance, although it has also created unprecedented opportunities considering the consistent and large dataset we have now accumulated.
1. Confirmed that early season applications of a larvicide (Bti) have a significant impact on adult populations of the Asian tiger mosquito (ATM). In 2011 we optimized area-wide applications of Bti and achieved consistent results relatively late in the season. As a result and after consultation with the Review Committee in our January 2012 meeting, we implemented successive applications of Bti in early summer 2012. To fully test the impact of larvicide application we chose not to apply adulticides in tandem. We made two successive week area-wide applications of full rate Bti with a Buffalo turbine. In both cases bioassays demonstrated >95% efficacy (no difference between front, mid, and back of parcels) and we saw significant decreases in the number of adult ATM for at least 1 month (this experiment is still in progress).
2. Prepared a series (6) of Standard Operational Procedures for control of ATM. These step-by-step files detail all the strategies we have successfully implemented: (1) BGS deployment and maintenance; (2) Adulticide area-wide applications; (3) Larvicide area-wide applications (3a Bti; 3b Methoprene); (4) Hot-spot ATM control; (5) Bioassays; (6) Ovitrap deployment. They have been made available to mosquito control programs with ATM infestations. To this date we have distributed to and discussed these protocols with over 15 separate programs.
3. Created a standard susceptible colony of Asian Tiger Mosquito (ATM) for insecticide resistance. This colony has been examined for all classes of insecticides (organochlorides, carbamates, organophosphates, and Insect Growth Regulators). Specifically, we have tested this colony for susceptibility to (Bti, Spinosad, Temephos, Propoxur, Methoprene, Pyriproxifen, DDT, Malathion, Deltamethrin, Prallethrin, Phenothrin). We have already provided specimens to colleagues for informed comparisons of insecticide resistance across laboratories and ATM populations.
4. Obtained and optimized a panel of hypervariable microsatellite loci for U.S. Asian Tiger Mosquito (ATM). Analysis of the population genetics of ATM across the U.S. has demonstrated unexpected patterns of differentiation often between relatively close populations (< 50 miles apart) that agree with findings, that like other Aedes species ATM is a weak flyer. Importantly, these findings shed light on some of the crucial differences we have observed between urban and suburban populations and combined with the results from insecticide resistance tests also indicate the presence of multiple introductions of ATM into the U.S.A.
5. Finalized data manipulation and analysis. Completed data collection and analysis for the economic costs of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (ATM) surveillance, research and control activities from Monmouth and Mercer Counties and Rutgers University. Completed data entry and coding of the 2011 household survey. Found that residents would be willing to pay more now (41%) or later (43%) for enhanced mosquito control services while 16% would not pay more. The perceived monetary benefits to the counties’ 1.01 million residents for an enhanced control program would be $9.61 million annually. Thus, collectively residents perceived monetary benefits of 3.67 times the annual operating costs ($2.61 million) of the counties’ existing programs. Presented preliminary results of the benefit-cost analysis of the Area Wide Pest Management Program at the Annual Meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association.