1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Objectives of this research are the development of potato varieties and germplasm with disease and pest resistances, reduced sugar accumulation, reduced need for production inputs, and enhanced nutritional qualities. Targets for resistance breeding are the major diseases and pests affecting potato production in the western United States. Many of these diseases and pests are nationally important, with germplasm and varieties from our program also benefitting potato producers outside the western United States as well. Objective 1: Develop potato germplasm with beneficial traits and make available to the potato industry, breeders, and geneticists. Objective 2: Develop enhanced potato varieties that benefit U.S. potato producers and consumers, including russets (fresh market and processing), long whites (processing), round whites (chipping), and specialty (red-skinned and yellow-fleshed), with emphasis on disease and pest resistance, reduced sugar accumulation, reduced need for production inputs, and enhanced nutritional qualities. Objective 3: Develop marker-assisted selection (MAS) protocols for potato traits, with an emphasis on pathogen and pest resistances. Objective 4: Characterize foliar and tuber responses of potato varieties to infection by newly identified strains of potato virus Y (PVY), and identify new sources of resistances to these PVY strains useful to potato breeders.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
This research, performed under institutional biosafety policies, will benefit the western U.S. potato industry by developing new potato varieties that will maintain the economic viability and competitiveness of this region in an age of expanding global competition. This will be accomplished by producing new potato varieties with improved agronomic characteristics, nutritional qualities, disease/pest resistances, and a reduced need for production inputs such as water and nitrogen. Desired traits will be acquired from wild relatives of the cultivated potato and from germplasm of other potato breeding programs within and outside of the U.S. Identified parental material will be hybridized with potato breeding clones and varieties adapted to the irrigated environments of the western U.S. Progeny of hybridizations will be evaluated, performance data collected, and superior individuals selected and advanced in the program for release as potato varieties with enhanced attributes. Newer technologies, such as marker-assisted selection, will be used to facilitate the development of enhanced potato varieties.
3. Progress Report:
This is the final report for the project 5366-21000-026-00D terminated in February 2013 and was replaced with project 5366-21000-032-00D. Details of continued progress on the development of potato germplasm and varieties for the western U.S. can be found in the Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report for 5366-21000-032-00D. Substantial results were realized over the 5 year duration of this project, with progress made on all four project objectives. Eleven potato varieties were developed and released with collaborators of the Northwest (Tri-State) Potato Variety Development Program which contributed to Objective 2 of the project that emphasizes the development of enhanced potato varieties. Eight of the eleven potato varieties originated from this project’s hybridization program, with University of Idaho colleagues and this project leading in the release of the varieties Classic Russet, Alpine Russet, Clearwater Russet, Palisade Russet, Teton Russet, and Huckleberry Gold. Characteristics of each variety have been previously reported in this project’s FY08 to FY12 annual reports and with publications in the American Journal of Potato Research. Significant progress also was made in Objective 3, with the development and use in our project of molecular markers linked to extreme resistance to potato virus Y (PVY). In addition, in collaboration with University of Idaho researcher further fine-mapping of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) resistance conferred by the Rlretb gene identified by our project was conducted. Molecular markers more close linked to t Rlretb and useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) were identified. Field evaluations of a family segregating for traits were also conducted as part of a national research effort termed “SolCAP” to link genes important in carbohydrate and vitamin biosynthesis in potato with molecular markers useful for MAS. A subset of these SolCAP breeding clones are now being used for identifying molecular markers important in the formation of acrylamide, with this project supplying seed and being one of two field test sites. This project also contributed advanced breeding clones and varieties for the National Fry Processing Trial (NFPT) which seeks to identify processing varieties having low acrylamide that could be rapidly adopted by the U.S. potato processing industry, and also oversaw a NFPT trial site for the last three years. As part of the SCRI Zebra Chip (ZC) Research initiative, potato germplasm from this project was identified as having resistance to ZC disease and its insect vector. This is notable in that potato varieties currently utilized by industry have shown no or little resistance to ZC with this research contributing to project objective 1. Our project also manages a trial site in Idaho that is screening U.S. germplasm for resistance to PVY in collaboration with researchers in New York and Wisconsin. In addition, our work to screen for PVY resistance in intra-genetically modified lines from collaborators in Michigan has shown that three previously PVY susceptible varieties now exhibit resistance to three PVY strains. This PVY research contributed to project objective 4.
1. Release of Potato Variety: Huckleberry Gold. Specialty potato varieties with unique attributes not found in more commonly-grown varieties have become of increasing interest to U.S. consumers and the potato industry. Huckleberry Gold, originating from the ARS potato breeding program at Aberdeen, Idaho, and developed and released with collaborators of the Tri-State Potato Variety Development Program, has tubers with purple-skin and yellow flesh. Culinary qualities of Huckleberry Gold have also been rated highly and are comparable to those of Yukon Gold, an industry standard variety having yellow skin and flesh. The desirable combination of purple skin and yellow flesh color, and excellent culinary qualities of Huckleberry Gold provides the fresh-pack sector of the potato industry with characteristics desired by consumers allowing the creation and establishment of a new market niche.
Vales, M.I., Brown, C.R., Yilma, S., Hane, D.C., James, S.R., Shock, C.C., Charlton, B.A., Karaagac, E., Mosley, A.R., Culp, D., Feibert, E., Stark, J.C., Pavek, M.J., Knowles, N.R., Novy, R.G., Whitworth, J.L. 2012. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity. American Journal of Potato Research. 89:306-314.