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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Columbia, Missouri » Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research » Research » Research Project #435625

Research Project: Sustainable Intensification of Cropping Systems on Spatially Variable Landscapes and Soils

Location: Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research

Project Number: 5070-12610-005-00-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: Oct 9, 2018
End Date: Oct 8, 2023

Objective:
Objective 1: Use a GxExM research approach to develop decision support tools for on-farm implementation of sustainable and resilient cropping systems. 1a: Develop knowledge to aid planting-time decision support for optimizing corn emergence on variable soils and landscapes. 1b: Improve decision support for variable-rate grain crop nitrogen management. 1c: Develop and evaluate new and improved soil health assessments. 1d: Develop and evaluate proximal sensing approaches to provide spatially-dense information important in soil management and soil health applications. Objective 2: Develop and evaluate sustainable and resilient cropping systems using a site-specific GxExM framework. 2a: Evaluate production and soil health of grain and perennial grass cropping systems on degraded claypan soil landscapes. 2b: Evaluate effects of cover crops and reduced tillage on soil health and crop productivity. 2c: Evaluate spatial aspects of sustainability in site-specific management systems.

Approach:
In this project, our interdisciplinary team will address key knowledge and technology gaps limiting the development of site-specific management systems using a genetics by environment by management (GxExM) research approach. In the first objective we focus on developing new decision support tools and the underlying knowledge needed to facilitate improved, targeted crop management systems. Here we will conduct field studies to understand how to vary planting depth to optimize corn emergence and yield and investigate the effect of emergence date on crop modeling (1a). We will conduct multiple analyses of a previously collected dataset to develop decision support guidelines for in-season variable-rate nitrogen management in corn (1b) We will collaborate with ARS colleagues in Oregon in developing decision support technology for variable-rate nitrogen management in wheat (1b). We will develop new laboratory-based soil health assessments and evaluate them in field experiments (1c). We will develop and evaluate in the field new proximal soil sensing techniques to support soil health and other management decisions (1d). In the second objective we develop, apply, and evaluate innovative management systems that incorporate information about spatially variable soil resources. Many of the studies incorporate application and evaluation of the decision tools described above. In long-term field experiments, we will investigate the effect of cropping systems and landscape variability on soil health and crop production and profitability (2a). We will quantify differences in energy yield of bioenergy crops grown across variable landscapes (2a). Also in field experiments, we will investigate the effects of cover crops and reduced tillage on soil health and crop productivity (2b). We will use a model-based approach to spatially compare production between site-specific and whole field management and validate model results with measured field data (1c). We will conduct field research that uses crop sensor technology to evaluate soybean drought and flood tolerance (1c). Much of the research in the second objective supports, and is coordinated with the Central Mississippi River Basin Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (CMRB LTAR) project, which is part of another research project within this ARS unit. Specifically, decision tools and knowledge from this project will inform possible future changes to the aspirational cropping system design for the CMRB LTAR common experiment.