|Areawide IPM Software|
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SGA Pro: bins in red, blue or green are at high, moderate, or low risk for insect problems. Bin 620 was selected by clicking on the bin number. The bottom half of the screen shows information about the grain in this bin. Current insect density is 2.5 insects/kg, the predicted insect density in 1 month is 14.6 insects/kg. SGA Pro recommends fumigating this bin and then cooling it with aeration. Other types of information are available by clicking on the tabs. By clicking on the full report button, a report is generated for all the bins at the elevator.
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Researchers at Kansas State University, Oklahoma State University and the USDA-ARS Research Center in Manhattan Kansas, developed the Areawide IPM Program for Insects in Stored Wheat. They have developed a grain sampling and decision support software that shows the elevator manager which bins need to be fumigated and which ones don't. The first step in the sampling program is to use a vacuum probe sampler to take 10 grain samples in the top 40 feet of each bin. An inclined sieve is used to separate the insects from the the one-gallon grain samples. The insects are identified and counted, and the data is entered into the decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor (SGA) Pro.
SGA Pro analyzes the insect data, grain temperatures and moistures for each bin at the elevator, and determines which bins need to be fumigated. The risk-analysis program also uses a predictive model based on the grain temperature and moisture for each bin to predict future insect numbers. Currently, most elevators use calendar-based fumigations: the grain is fumigated once in the fall and maybe once again before it is shipped. This method works well sometimes, but often insects in some bins reach economically damaging numbers before they are fumigated; or bins are unnecessarily fumigated when insect density is very low.
The advantage of a sampling-based program is that because the bins are sampled about every six weeks, the elevator manager knows if there is a problem in his bins. He can then fix the problem while it is still small. This is similar to putting out small fires before they become big ones. The most accurate and reliable method of estimating insect density in a 100-foot-tall grain silo, without moving the grain, is probably a vacuum-probe sampler. This method detects insects earlier, and gives the manager time to control the insects before they become a problem. When this sampling method is used in combination with SGA Pro, it can alert the elevator manager to target control methods to the bins that need it most.
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