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Registration of Annual O-Type and CMS Sugarbeet Germplasm Lines, FC404 and FC404CMS
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SUGARBEET (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasms FC404 and FC404CMS (Reg. no. GP-164 and GP-165)(PI 584987 and PI 584988) were developed by the USDA-ARS, Fort Collins, CO in cooperation with the Beet Sugar Development Foundation, Denver, CO and released in 1991. These germplasms were released to provide a monogerm, annual, O-type maintainer and cytoplasmic-genetic male sterile (CMS) equivalent pair. They may be useful to expedite generation advancement of specific hybridizations, in genetic studies, for other research purposes, and for O-type testing.

FC404 is the O-type maintainer for FC404CMS. It is a monogerm (mm), easy bolting annual (B-), with green hypocotyledons (rr) and self-fertile (Sf •• 0.97). FC404 was developed from the cross SLC 03(rr) x FC606(R-) (1), followed by four cycles of mass selection for monogerm, annual plants. SLC 03 is a multigerm (MM), easy bolting annual (BB), with green hypocotyledons (rr), self-fertile (Sf Sf ), and highly inbred (S10). FC404 bolts and flowers as readily as its annual parent (SLC 03) in the field and in the greenhouse at Fort Collins. Some plants within FC404 are probably heterozygous at the B locus. After four cycles of selection, the recessive allele, b, would be expected to have a frequency of about .06 within the line. When planted on May 23 in the field at Fort Collins, 82% of FC404 and 95% of FC404CMS bolted. An increase (= reselection for annualism) of FC404 and its CMS planted in the greenhouse on July 25th gave 100% bolting without cold induction. To induce flowering under short day conditions supplemental lighting is required. Usually, the small number of biennial plants should present no problem for researchers because the biennial plants will remain vegetative and can be discarded.

Both parents of FC404 are O-type for the Owen cytoplasmic factor of CMS but FC404 has not been specifically O-type selected. However, the CMS equivalent, FC404CMS, has shown no partial restoration. FC404 has not been assessed for disease reactions, but the original pollinator (FC606) was moderately resistant to Cercospora leaf spot (caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc.) and curly top virus. The original population of FC404 consisted of F1 plants, identified by the red hypocotyledon marker, produced from 41 plants of SLC 03 pollinated by 48 plants of FC606 (1). FC404 was released in 1991 as seed production 891048HO.

FC404CMS is the CMS BC5 equivalent of FC404. It was developed from SLC 03CMS x FC606 (1), followed by five generations of backcrosses between selected monogerm, annual, CMS segregants and monogerm, annual segregants from selections within SLC 03 x FC606 (1). FC404CMS has the common Owen cytoplasmic factor for CMS from SLC 03CMS. FC404CMS was released in 1991 as seed production 891048HO1. The released seed lots were produced from 17 pair crosses.

Breeder seed of FC404 and FC404CMS is maintained by USDA-ARS and will be provided in quantities sufficient for reproduction upon written request to Sugarbeet Research, USDA-ARS, Crops Research Laboratory, 1701 Center Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80526-2081. We request that appropriate recognition be made of the source when this germplasm contributes to a new cultivar.

L. Panella* and R. J. Hecker (2)

References and Notes

  1. Smith, G. A. and E. G. Ruppel. 1979. Registration of FC 606 and FC 606 CMS sugarbeet germplasm. Crop Sci. 19:300.
  2. Research Geneticist and Research Geneticist (retired), USDA-ARS, Crops Research Lab., 1701 Center Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80526-2081. A joint contribution of USDA-ARS and the Beet Sugar Development Foundation. *Corresponding author. Email: