Dr. Kenneth E. Turner (Research Animal Scientist) graduated from Southern Illinois University-Carbondale with a B.A. in Microbiology (1979) and M.S. from Southern Illinois University (1984) in Animal Industries. He earned the Ph.D. from the University of Missouri-Columbia (1989) in Ruminant Nutrition focused on forage utilization by beef cattle, especially grazing methods to overcome problems of tall fescue toxicosis. His post-doctoral study in Agronomy at the University of Arkansas-Fayetteville involved studies with the tall fescue endophyte and its association with plant drought resistance and forage feeding to minimize ergovaline toxin effects in ruminants. Dr. Turner joined USDA, ARS, AFSRC, Beaver, WV in 1992, and his current objectives are to understand components of grazing systems practices to synchronize better forage availability and quality to meet nutritional requirements of grazing livestock, and to provide environmentally sound grazing practices for Appalachia. Refinements to the components of grazing and browsing systems include using traditional as well as new forages to improve efficiency of nitrogen use in plant/livestock systems, and manage the fate of nitrogen from livestock waste in a grazed/browsed environment. Emphasis is on low-input, forage-based livestock production, especially for meat goat kids and growing lambs, and pasture-finished beef.