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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Charles B Stephensen
Research Leader


Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
What causes high fat diet-induced postprandial inflammation: endotoxin or free fatty acids? -
Daily cholecalciferol supplementation during pregnancy alters markers of regulatory immunity, inflammation, and clinical outcomes in a randomized controlled trial -
Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development – Vitamin A Review -
Tanuminhardjo, S.A., Russell, R.M., Stephensen, C.B., Gannon, B.M., Craft, N.E., Haskell, M.J., Lietz, G., Schulze, K., Raiten, D.J. 2016. Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development – Vitamin A Review. Journal of Nutrition. 146/p.18165-18485.
Vitamin A and Epigenetic Modifications -
Stephensen, C.B. 2015. Vitamin A and Epigenetic Modifications. Sight and Life Newsletter. Vol.29(2) Pg 21-23.
Impact of nutrition on immune function and the inflammatory response Reprint Icon -
Stephensen, C.B., Dawson, H.D., Claycombe, K.J. 2015. Impact of nutrition on immune function and the inflammatory response. Journal of Nutrition. 145(5):1039S-1108S. DOI: 10.3945/jn.114.194571.
Stool microbiota and vaccine responses of infants -
Huda, M.N., Lewis, Z., Kalanetra, K.M., Rashid, M.N., Raqib, R., Qadri, F., Underwood, M.A., Mills, D.A., Stephensen, C.B. 2014. Stool microbiota and vaccine responses of infants. Pediatrics. 134:1-11. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3937.
Vitamin D3 supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youth treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate -
Havens, P.L., Hazra, R., Stephensen, C.B., Kiser, J., Flynn, P.M., Wilson, C.M., Rutledge, B., Bethel, J., Pan, C., Woodhouse, L.R., Van Loan, M.D., Lui, N., Lujan-Zilbermann, J., Baker, A., Kapogiannis, B.G., Gordon, C.M., Mulligan, K. 2014. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youth treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Antiviral Therapy. DOI: 10.3851/IMP2755.
Vitamin D Supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youth treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate -
Havens, P.L., Hazra, R., Stephensen, C.B., Kiser, J., Flynn, P.M., Wilson, C.M., Rutledge, B., Bethel, J., Pan, C., Woodhouse, L.R., Van Loan, M.D., Lui, N., Lujan-Zilbermann, J., Baker, A., Kapogiannis, B.G., Gordon, C.M., Mulligan, K. 2014. Vitamin D Supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youth treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Antiviral Therapy. DOI: 10.3851/imp2755.
Dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids do not diminish eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation in mice -
Schuster, G.U., Bratt, J., Jiang, X., Pedersen, T.L., Grapov, D., Adkins, Y.C., Kelley, D.S., Newman, J.W., Kenyon, N.J., Stephensen, C.B. 2014. Dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids do not diminish eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation in mice. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0136OC.
Higher plasma vitamin D binding protein and lower free calcitriol with tenofovir treatment: Cause of a functional vitamin D deficiency? -
Havens, P.L., Kiser, J.J., Stephensen, C.B., Hazra, R., Flynn, P.M., Wilson, C.M., Rutledge, B., Bethel, J., Pan, C.G., Woodhouse, L.R., Van Loan, M.D., Liu, N., Lujan-Zilbermann, J., Baker, A., Kapogiannis, B.G., Gordon, C., Mulligan, K. 2013. Higher plasma vitamin D binding protein and lower free calcitriol with tenofovir treatment: Cause of a functional vitamin D deficiency. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 57:619-28.
Big data computing: Building a vision for ARS information management -
James, R.R., Lawrence, C.J., Papiernik, S.K., Van Tassell, C.P., Ahuja, L.R., Baxter, I.R., Cannon, S.B., Lunney, J.K., Rexroad Iii, C.E., Sadler, J., Stanton, T.B., Stephensen, C.B. 2013. Big data computing: Building a vision for ARS information management. USDA. Agricultural Research Service Publication (White Paper).
CD4 T-helper cell cytokine phenotypes and antibody response following tetanus toxoid booster immunization -
Livingston, K.A., Jiang, X., Stephensen, C.B. 2013. CD4 T-helper cell cytokine phenotypes and antibody response following tetanus toxoid booster immunization. Journal of Immunological Methods. 390:18-29. DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2013.01.001.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D3 supplementation 50,000 IU monthly in youth with HIV-1 infection -
Havens, P.L., Mulligan, K., Hazra, R., Flynn, P., Rutledge, B., Van Loan, M.D., Lujan-Zilberman, J., Kapogiannis, B.G., Wilson, C.M., Stephensen, C.B. 2012. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D3 supplementation 50,000 IU monthly in youth with HIV-1 infection. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 97(11):0000-0000. DOI:10.1210/jc.2012-2600.
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans -
Armstrong, P., Kelley, D.S., Newman, J.W., Staggers, F., Hartiala, J., Allayee, H., Stephensen, C.B. 2012. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans. Journal of Nutrition. 142(8):1417-1428. DOI: 10.3945/jn.112.159814.
Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults -
Stephensen, C.B., Zerofsky, M., Burnett, D., Lin, Y., Hammock, B.D., Hall, L.M., Mchugh, T.H. 2012. Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults. Journal of Nutrition. 142(7):1246-1252. DOI: 10.3945/jn.112.159764.
Vitamin A and immune function -
Stephensen, C.B. 2012. Vitamin A and immune function. In: Preedy, V.R., editor. Food and Nutritional Components in Focus No. 1: Vitamin A and Carotenoids: Chemistry, Analysis, Function and Effects. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 501-515. DOI:10.1039/ISBN
Provitamin A carotenoids and immune function -
Stephensen, C.B. 2013. Provitamin A carotenoids and immune function. In: Tanumihardjo, S. Carotenoids and Human Health. New York, NY: Humana Press. pp. 261-270.
Vitamin D3 decreases parathyroid hormone in HIV-infected youth being treated with tenofovir: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial -
Havens, P.L., Stephensen, C.B., Hazra, R., Flynn, P.M., Wilson, C.M., Rutledge, B., Bethel, J., Pan, C.G., Woodhouse, L.R., Van Loan, M.D. 2012. Vitamin D3 decreases parathyroid hormone in HIV-infected youth being treated with tenofovir: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 54(7):1013-1025. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cir968.
Effects of dietary strawberry powder on blood lipids and inflammatory markers in obese human subjects -
Zunino, S.J., Parelman, M., Freytag, T.L., Stephensen, C.B., Kelley, D.S., Mackey, B.E., Woodhouse, L.R., Bonnel, E. 2011. Effects of dietary strawberry powder on blood lipids and inflammatory markers in obese human subjects. British Journal of Nutrition. 1-10. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114511006027.
Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring Reprint Icon -
Sharkar, M., Jou, M., Hossain, M.B., Lonnerdal, B., Stephensen, C.B., Raquib, R. 2011. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring. Journal of Nutrition. 141(8):1559-1564.
Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids Reprint Icon -
Makhoul, Z., Kristal, A.R., Gulati, R., Luick, B., Bersamin, A., O'Brien, D., Hopkins, S.E., Stephensen, C.B., Stanhope, K.L., Havel, P.J., Boyer, B. 2011. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 65(7):808-817. Available: http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v65/n7/full/ejcn201139a.html
ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation Reprint Icon -
Stephensen, C.B., Armstrong, P., Newman, J.W., Pedersen, T.L., Legault, J., Schuster, G., Kelley, D.S., Vikman, S., Hartiala, J., Hooman, A. 2011. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation. Journal of Lipid Research. 52(5):991-1003.
Genetic contribution of the leukotriene pathway to coronary artery disease -
Hartiala, J., Li, D., Conti, D.V., Vikman, S., Patel, Y., Tang, W., Brennan, M., Newman, J.W., Stephensen, C.B., Armstrong, P., Hazen, S.L., Allayee, H. 2011. Genetic contribution of the leukotriene pathway to coronary artery disease. Human Genetics. 129(6):617-627.
Nutrition and the immune system -
Stephensen, C.B., Zunino, S.J. 2012. Nutrition and the immune system. In: Ross, C., Caballero, B., Cousins, R., Tucker, K., Ziegler, T., editors. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a division of Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. p. 601-610.
Prevalence and risk factors For vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants in Sacramento, California -
Liang, L., Chantry, C., Stephensen, C.B. 2010. Prevalence and risk factors For vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants in Sacramento, California. Pediatrics. 169:1337-1344.
Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation Reprint Icon -
Eneroth, H., Arifeen, S., Persson, L., Lonnerdal, B., Hossain, M.B., Stephensen, C.B., Ekstrom, E. 2010. Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation. Journal of Nutrition. doi:10.3945/jn.109.111740.
Men with Low Vitamin A Stores Respond Adequately to Primary Yellow Fever and Secondary Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination Reprint Icon -
Ahmad, S.M., Haskell, M.J., Raqib, R., Stephensen, C.B. 2009. Men with Low Vitamin A Stores Respond Adequately to Primary Yellow Fever and Secondary Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 138:2276-2283.
Vitamin A Status is Associated With T-Cell Responses In Bangladeshi Men Reprint Icon -
Ahmad, S.M., Haskell, M.J., Raqib, R., Stephensen, C.B. 2009. Vitamin A Stores Are Associated With T-Cell Responses In Bangladeshi Men. British Journal of Nutrition. 102:797-802.
Contrasting Roles For All-Trans Retinoic Acid in TGF-ß-mediated Induction of Foxp3 and Il10 Genes in Developing Regulatory T Cells Reprint Icon -
Maynard, C.L., Hatton, R.D., Helms, W.S., Oliver, J.R., Stephensen, C.B., Weaver, C.T. 2009. Contrasting Roles For All-Trans Retinoic Acid in TGF-ß-mediated Induction of Foxp3 and Il10 genes in Developing Regulatory T Cells. J. Exp. Med. Vol. 206, No. 2 343-357.
Metabolic Profiling of Major Vitamin D Metabolites Using Diels-Alder Derivatization and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry -
Aronov, P.A., Hall, L.M., Dettmer, K., Stephensen, C.B., Hammock, B.D. 2008. Metabolic Profiling of Major Vitamin D Metabolites Using Diels-Alder Derivatization and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistyr, Springer, DOI 10.1007/s00216-008-2095-8.
Current Understanding of Vitamin D Metabolism, Nutritional Status, and Role in Disease Prevention -
Whiting, S.J., Calvo, M.S., Stephensen, C.B. 2008. Current Understanding of Vitamin D Metabolism, Nutritional Status, and Role in Disease Prevention. Book Chapter. ISBN-13:978-0-12-374118-9, publ.date March 2008, Chapter 43:807-832.
Vitamin A deficiency decreases and high dietary vitamin A increases disease severity in the mouse model of asthma -
Schuster, G.U., Kenyon, N.J., Stephensen, C.B. 2008. Vitamin A deficiency decreases and high dietary vitamin A increases disease severity in the mouse model of asthma. Journal of Immunology, 180:1834-1842.
Metabolic Syndrome in Yup'ik Eskimos: The Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) Study -
Boyer, B.B., Mohatt, G.V., Plaetke, R., Herron, J., Stanhope, K.L., Stephensen, C.B., Havel, P.J. 2007. Metabolic Syndrome in Yup'ik Eskimos: The Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) Study. Obesity. Vol.15 No.11, 2535-2540.
DIETS RICH IN POLYPHENOLS AND VITAMIN A INHIBIT THE DEVELOPMENT OF TYPE I AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES IN NONOBESE DIABETIC MICE -
Zunino, S.J., Storms, D.H., Stephensen, C.B. Diets rich in polyphenols and vitamin a inhibit the development of type i autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Journal of Nutrition. 137:1216-1221.
DISRUPTION OF RXRA GENE IN THYMOCYTES AND T LYMPHOCYTES MODESTLY ALTERS LYMPHOCYTE FREQUENCIES, PROLIFERATION, SURVIVAL AND T HELPER TYPE 1/TYPE 2 BALANCE -
Stephensen, C.B., Borowsky, A.D., Lloyd, K.K. 2007. DISRUPTION OF RXRA GENE IN THYMOCYTES AND T LYMPHOCYTES MODESTLY ALTERS LYMPHOCYTE FREQUENCIES, PROLIFERATION, SURVIVAL AND T HELPER TYPE 1/TYPE 2 BALANCE. Immunology. 121:484-498.
Zinc Supplementation to Pregnant Rats with Adequate Zinc Nutriture Suppresses Immune Functions in their Offspring -
Raqib, R., Hossain, M.B., Kelleher, S.L., Stephensen, C.B., Lonnerdal, B. Zinc Supplementation to Pregnant Rats with Adequate Zinc Nutriture Suppresses Immune Functions in their Offspring. Journal of Nutrition. 137: 1037-1042.
GLUTATHIONE, GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE AND SELENIUM STATUS IN HIV-POSITIVE AND HIV-NEGATIVE ADOLESCENTS -
Stephensen, C.B., Marquis, G.S., Douglas, S.D., Kruzich, L.A., Wilson, C.M. 2007. GLUTATHIONE, GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE AND SELENIUM STATUS IN HIV-POSITIVE AND HIV-NEGATIVE ADOLESCENTS. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 85:173-181.
VITAMINS D STATUS IN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH HIV INFECTION -
Stephensen, C.B., Marquis, G.S., Kruzich, L.A., Douglas, S.D., Wilson, C.M. 2006. VITAMINS D STATUS IN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH HIV INFECTION. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83:1135-41.
VITAMINS C AND E IN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH HIV INFECTION -
Stephensen, C.B., Marquies, G.S., Jacob, R.A., Kruzich, L.A., Douglas, S.D., Wilson, C.M. 2006. Vitamins c and e in adolescents and young adults with hiv infection. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006. 83:870-879.
THE INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM - FRIEND AND FOE -
Kelley, D.S., Stephensen, C.B. 2006. THE INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM - FRIEND AND FOE. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 83:187-188, 2006.
LYSINE DEFICIENCY AND FEED RESTRITION INDEPENDENTLY ALTER CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER EXPRESSION IN CHICKENS -
Humphrey, B.D., Stephensen, C.B., Calvert, C.C., Klasing, K.C. 2006. Lysine deficiency and feed restrition independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A 143:218-227.
RETINOID X RECEPTOR AGONISTS INCREASE BCL2A1 EXPRESSION AND DECREASE APOPTOSIS OF NAÏVE T LYMPHOCYTES -
Rasooly, R., Schuster, G.U., Gregg, J.P., Xiao, J.H., Chandraratna, R., Stephensen, C.B. 2005. RETINOID X RECEPTOR AGONISTS INCREASE BCL2A1 EXPRESSION AND DECREASE APOPTOSIS OF NAÏVE T LYMPHOCYTES. Journal of Immunology. 175:7916-7929.
PLASMA CYTOKINIES AND OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN HIV-POSITIVE AND HIV-NEGATIVE ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS: A PROTECTIVE ROLE FOR IL-10? -
Stephensen, C.B., Marquis, G.S., Douglas, S.D., Wilson, C.M. 2005. Plasma cytokinies and oxidative damage in hiv-positive and hiv-negative adolescents and young adults: a protective role for il-10. Trade Journal Publication.
FISH OIL AND INFLAMMATORY DISEASE: IS ASTHMA THE NEXT TARGET FOR N-3 FATTY ACID SUPPLEMENTS? -
Stephensen, C.B. 2004. Fish oil and inflammatory disease: is asthma the next target for n-3 fatty acid supplements?. Nutrition Reviews. 62(12):486-9.
IMMUNE ACTIVATION AND OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN HIV-POSITIVE AND HIV-NEGATIVE ADOLESCENTS -
Stephensen, C.B., Marquis, G.S., Kruzich, L., Jacob, R.A., Douglas, S., Wilson, C. 2005. Immune activation and oxidative damage in hiv-positive and hiv-negative adolescents. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 2005. 38(2):180-90.
VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY INCREASES THE IN VIVO DEVELOPMENT OF IL-10-POSITIVE TH2 AND DECREASES DEVELOPMENT OF TH1 CELLS IN MICE -
Stephensen, C.B., Jiang, X., Freytag, T. 2004. Vitamin a deficiency increases the in vivo development of il-10-positive th2 and decreases development of th1 cells in mice. Journal of Nutrition. 134:2660-2666.
GLUCOSE AND CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER EXPRESSION IN GROWING CHICKENS (GALLUS GALLUS DOMESTICUS) -
Humphrey, B.D., Stephensen, C.B., Calvert, C.C., Klasing, K.C. 2004. GLUCOSE AND CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER EXPRESSION IN GROWING CHICKENS (GALLUS GALLUS DOMESTICUS). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 138:515-525.
VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY INCREASES INCREASES IN VIVO DEVELOPMENT OF IL-10-PROSITIVE TH2 CELLS AND DECREASES DEVELOPMENT OF TH-1 CELLS IN MICE -
Stephensen, C.B., Jiang, X., Freytab, T. 2004. Vitamin a deficiency increases increases in vivo development of il-10-prositive th2 cells and decreases development of th-1 cells in mice. Journal of Nutrition. 134:2660-2666, 2004.
U.S. YOUTH IN THE EARLY STAGE OF HIV DISEASE HAVE LOW INTAKES OF SOME MICRONUTRIENTS IMPORTANT FOR OPTIMAL IMMUNE FUNCTION -
Kruzich, L.A., Marquis, G.S., Carriquirry, A.L., Wilson, C.M., Stephensen, C.B. 2004. U.S. youth in the early stage of hiv disease have low intakes of some micronutrients important for optimal immune function. American Dietetic Association. 104(7): 1095-1101.
HIV-INFECTED U.S. YOUTH ARE AT HIGH RISK OF OBESITY AND POOR DIETARY QUALITY: A CHALLENGE FOR IMPROVING SHORT- AND LONG-TERM HEALTH OUTCOMES -
Kruzich, L.A., Marquis, G.S., Wilson, C.M., Stephensen, C.B. 2004. Hiv-infected u.s. youth are at high risk of obesity and poor dietary quality: a challenge for improving short- and long-term health outcomes. American Dietetic Association. Vol.104 N.10:1554-1560.
COMMENTARY: A HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION, VACCINES AND CHILDHOOD MORTALITY -
Stephensen, C.B. 2003. Commentary: a hypothesis concerning vitamin a supplementation, vaccines and childhood mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology. 32(5):828-829.
MODERATE ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION HAS NO EFFECT ON BIOMARKERS OF OXIDANTDAMAGE IN HEALTHY MEN WITH LOW FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTAKES -
Last Modified: 8/26/2016
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