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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Charles B Stephensen
Research Leader


Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
Daily cholecalciferol supplementation during pregnancy alters markers of regulatory immunity, inflammation, and clinical outcomes in a randomized controlled trial -
Vitamin A and Epigenetic Modifications -
Impact of nutrition on immune function and the inflammatory response Reprint Icon -
Stephensen, C.B., Dawson, H.D., Claycombe, K.J. 2015. Impact of nutrition on immune function and the inflammatory response. Journal of Nutrition. 145(5):1039S-1108S. DOI: 10.3945/jn.114.194571.
Stool microbiota and vaccine responses of infants -
Huda, M.N., Lewis, Z., Kalanetra, K.M., Rashid, M.N., Raqib, R., Qadri, F., Underwood, M.A., Mills, D.A., Stephensen, C.B. 2014. Stool microbiota and vaccine responses of infants. Pediatrics. 134:1-11. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3937.
Vitamin D3 supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youth treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate -
Havens, P.L., Hazra, R., Stephensen, C.B., Kiser, J., Flynn, P.M., Wilson, C.M., Rutledge, B., Bethel, J., Pan, C., Woodhouse, L.R., Van Loan, M.D., Lui, N., Lujan-Zilbermann, J., Baker, A., Kapogiannis, B.G., Gordon, C.M., Mulligan, K. 2014. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youth treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Antiviral Therapy. DOI: 10.3851/IMP2755.
Vitamin D Supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youth treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate -
Havens, P.L., Hazra, R., Stephensen, C.B., Kiser, J., Flynn, P.M., Wilson, C.M., Rutledge, B., Bethel, J., Pan, C., Woodhouse, L.R., Van Loan, M.D., Lui, N., Lujan-Zilbermann, J., Baker, A., Kapogiannis, B.G., Gordon, C.M., Mulligan, K. 2014. Vitamin D Supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youth treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Antiviral Therapy. DOI: 10.3851/imp2755.
Dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids do not diminish eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation in mice -
Schuster, G.U., Bratt, J., Jiang, X., Pedersen, T.L., Grapov, D., Adkins, Y.C., Kelley, D.S., Newman, J.W., Kenyon, N.J., Stephensen, C.B. 2014. Dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids do not diminish eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation in mice. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0136OC.
Higher plasma vitamin D binding protein and lower free calcitriol with tenofovir treatment: Cause of a functional vitamin D deficiency? -
Havens, P.L., Kiser, J.J., Stephensen, C.B., Hazra, R., Flynn, P.M., Wilson, C.M., Rutledge, B., Bethel, J., Pan, C.G., Woodhouse, L.R., Van Loan, M.D., Liu, N., Lujan-Zilbermann, J., Baker, A., Kapogiannis, B.G., Gordon, C., Mulligan, K. 2013. Higher plasma vitamin D binding protein and lower free calcitriol with tenofovir treatment: Cause of a functional vitamin D deficiency. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 57:619-28.
Big data computing: Building a vision for ARS information management -
James, R.R., Lawrence, C.J., Papiernik, S.K., Van Tassell, C.P., Ahuja, L.R., Baxter, I.R., Cannon, S.B., Lunney, J.K., Rexroad Iii, C.E., Sadler, J., Stanton, T.B., Stephensen, C.B. 2013. Big data computing: Building a vision for ARS information management. USDA. Agricultural Research Service Publication (White Paper).
CD4 T-helper cell cytokine phenotypes and antibody response following tetanus toxoid booster immunization -
Livingston, K.A., Jiang, X., Stephensen, C.B. 2013. CD4 T-helper cell cytokine phenotypes and antibody response following tetanus toxoid booster immunization. Journal of Immunological Methods. 390:18-29. DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2013.01.001.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D3 supplementation 50,000 IU monthly in youth with HIV-1 infection -
Havens, P.L., Mulligan, K., Hazra, R., Flynn, P., Rutledge, B., Van Loan, M.D., Lujan-Zilberman, J., Kapogiannis, B.G., Wilson, C.M., Stephensen, C.B. 2012. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D3 supplementation 50,000 IU monthly in youth with HIV-1 infection. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 97(11):0000-0000. DOI:10.1210/jc.2012-2600.
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans -
Armstrong, P., Kelley, D.S., Newman, J.W., Staggers, F., Hartiala, J., Allayee, H., Stephensen, C.B. 2012. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans. Journal of Nutrition. 142(8):1417-1428. DOI: 10.3945/jn.112.159814.
Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults -
Stephensen, C.B., Zerofsky, M., Burnett, D., Lin, Y., Hammock, B.D., Hall, L.M., Mchugh, T.H. 2012. Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults. Journal of Nutrition. 142(7):1246-1252. DOI: 10.3945/jn.112.159764.
Vitamin A and immune function -
Stephensen, C.B. 2012. Vitamin A and immune function. In: Preedy, V.R., editor. Food and Nutritional Components in Focus No. 1: Vitamin A and Carotenoids: Chemistry, Analysis, Function and Effects. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 501-515. DOI:10.1039/ISBN
Provitamin A carotenoids and immune function -
Stephensen, C.B. 2013. Provitamin A carotenoids and immune function. In: Tanumihardjo, S. Carotenoids and Human Health. New York, NY: Humana Press. pp. 261-270.
Vitamin D3 decreases parathyroid hormone in HIV-infected youth being treated with tenofovir: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial -
Havens, P.L., Stephensen, C.B., Hazra, R., Flynn, P.M., Wilson, C.M., Rutledge, B., Bethel, J., Pan, C.G., Woodhouse, L.R., Van Loan, M.D. 2012. Vitamin D3 decreases parathyroid hormone in HIV-infected youth being treated with tenofovir: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 54(7):1013-1025. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cir968.
Effects of dietary strawberry powder on blood lipids and inflammatory markers in obese human subjects -
Zunino, S.J., Parelman, M., Freytag, T.L., Stephensen, C.B., Kelley, D.S., Mackey, B.E., Woodhouse, L.R., Bonnel, E. 2011. Effects of dietary strawberry powder on blood lipids and inflammatory markers in obese human subjects. British Journal of Nutrition. 1-10. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114511006027.
Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring Reprint Icon -
Sharkar, M., Jou, M., Hossain, M.B., Lonnerdal, B., Stephensen, C.B., Raquib, R. 2011. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring. Journal of Nutrition. 141(8):1559-1564.
Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids Reprint Icon -
Makhoul, Z., Kristal, A.R., Gulati, R., Luick, B., Bersamin, A., O'Brien, D., Hopkins, S.E., Stephensen, C.B., Stanhope, K.L., Havel, P.J., Boyer, B. 2011. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 65(7):808-817. Available: http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v65/n7/full/ejcn201139a.html
ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation Reprint Icon -
Stephensen, C.B., Armstrong, P., Newman, J.W., Pedersen, T.L., Legault, J., Schuster, G., Kelley, D.S., Vikman, S., Hartiala, J., Hooman, A. 2011. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation. Journal of Lipid Research. 52(5):991-1003.
Genetic contribution of the leukotriene pathway to coronary artery disease -
Hartiala, J., Li, D., Conti, D.V., Vikman, S., Patel, Y., Tang, W., Brennan, M., Newman, J.W., Stephensen, C.B., Armstrong, P., Hazen, S.L., Allayee, H. 2011. Genetic contribution of the leukotriene pathway to coronary artery disease. Human Genetics. 129(6):617-627.
Nutrition and the immune system -
Stephensen, C.B., Zunino, S.J. 2012. Nutrition and the immune system. In: Ross, C., Caballero, B., Cousins, R., Tucker, K., Ziegler, T., editors. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a division of Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. p. 601-610.
Prevalence and risk factors For vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants in Sacramento, California -
Liang, L., Chantry, C., Stephensen, C.B. 2010. Prevalence and risk factors For vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants in Sacramento, California. Pediatrics. 169:1337-1344.
Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation Reprint Icon -
Eneroth, H., Arifeen, S., Persson, L., Lonnerdal, B., Hossain, M.B., Stephensen, C.B., Ekstrom, E. 2010. Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation. Journal of Nutrition. doi:10.3945/jn.109.111740.
Men with Low Vitamin A Stores Respond Adequately to Primary Yellow Fever and Secondary Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination Reprint Icon -
Ahmad, S.M., Haskell, M.J., Raqib, R., Stephensen, C.B. 2009. Men with Low Vitamin A Stores Respond Adequately to Primary Yellow Fever and Secondary Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 138:2276-2283.
Vitamin A Status is Associated With T-Cell Responses In Bangladeshi Men Reprint Icon -
Ahmad, S.M., Haskell, M.J., Raqib, R., Stephensen, C.B. 2009. Vitamin A Stores Are Associated With T-Cell Responses In Bangladeshi Men. British Journal of Nutrition. 102:797-802.
Contrasting Roles For All-Trans Retinoic Acid in TGF-ß-mediated Induction of Foxp3 and Il10 Genes in Developing Regulatory T Cells Reprint Icon -
Maynard, C.L., Hatton, R.D., Helms, W.S., Oliver, J.R., Stephensen, C.B., Weaver, C.T. 2009. Contrasting Roles For All-Trans Retinoic Acid in TGF-ß-mediated Induction of Foxp3 and Il10 genes in Developing Regulatory T Cells. J. Exp. Med. Vol. 206, No. 2 343-357.
Metabolic Profiling of Major Vitamin D Metabolites Using Diels-Alder Derivatization and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry -
Aronov, P.A., Hall, L.M., Dettmer, K., Stephensen, C.B., Hammock, B.D. 2008. Metabolic Profiling of Major Vitamin D Metabolites Using Diels-Alder Derivatization and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistyr, Springer, DOI 10.1007/s00216-008-2095-8.
Current Understanding of Vitamin D Metabolism, Nutritional Status, and Role in Disease Prevention -
Whiting, S.J., Calvo, M.S., Stephensen, C.B. 2008. Current Understanding of Vitamin D Metabolism, Nutritional Status, and Role in Disease Prevention. Book Chapter. ISBN-13:978-0-12-374118-9, publ.date March 2008, Chapter 43:807-832.
Vitamin A deficiency decreases and high dietary vitamin A increases disease severity in the mouse model of asthma -
Schuster, G.U., Kenyon, N.J., Stephensen, C.B. 2008. Vitamin A deficiency decreases and high dietary vitamin A increases disease severity in the mouse model of asthma. Journal of Immunology, 180:1834-1842.
Metabolic Syndrome in Yup'ik Eskimos: The Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) Study -
Boyer, B.B., Mohatt, G.V., Plaetke, R., Herron, J., Stanhope, K.L., Stephensen, C.B., Havel, P.J. 2007. Metabolic Syndrome in Yup'ik Eskimos: The Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) Study. Obesity. Vol.15 No.11, 2535-2540.
DIETS RICH IN POLYPHENOLS AND VITAMIN A INHIBIT THE DEVELOPMENT OF TYPE I AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES IN NONOBESE DIABETIC MICE -
Zunino, S.J., Storms, D.H., Stephensen, C.B. Diets rich in polyphenols and vitamin a inhibit the development of type i autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Journal of Nutrition. 137:1216-1221.
DISRUPTION OF RXRA GENE IN THYMOCYTES AND T LYMPHOCYTES MODESTLY ALTERS LYMPHOCYTE FREQUENCIES, PROLIFERATION, SURVIVAL AND T HELPER TYPE 1/TYPE 2 BALANCE -
Stephensen, C.B., Borowsky, A.D., Lloyd, K.K. 2007. DISRUPTION OF RXRA GENE IN THYMOCYTES AND T LYMPHOCYTES MODESTLY ALTERS LYMPHOCYTE FREQUENCIES, PROLIFERATION, SURVIVAL AND T HELPER TYPE 1/TYPE 2 BALANCE. Immunology. 121:484-498.
Zinc Supplementation to Pregnant Rats with Adequate Zinc Nutriture Suppresses Immune Functions in their Offspring -
Raqib, R., Hossain, M.B., Kelleher, S.L., Stephensen, C.B., Lonnerdal, B. Zinc Supplementation to Pregnant Rats with Adequate Zinc Nutriture Suppresses Immune Functions in their Offspring. Journal of Nutrition. 137: 1037-1042.
GLUTATHIONE, GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE AND SELENIUM STATUS IN HIV-POSITIVE AND HIV-NEGATIVE ADOLESCENTS -
Stephensen, C.B., Marquis, G.S., Douglas, S.D., Kruzich, L.A., Wilson, C.M. 2007. GLUTATHIONE, GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE AND SELENIUM STATUS IN HIV-POSITIVE AND HIV-NEGATIVE ADOLESCENTS. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 85:173-181.
VITAMINS D STATUS IN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH HIV INFECTION -
Stephensen, C.B., Marquis, G.S., Kruzich, L.A., Douglas, S.D., Wilson, C.M. 2006. VITAMINS D STATUS IN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH HIV INFECTION. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83:1135-41.
VITAMINS C AND E IN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH HIV INFECTION -
Stephensen, C.B., Marquies, G.S., Jacob, R.A., Kruzich, L.A., Douglas, S.D., Wilson, C.M. 2006. Vitamins c and e in adolescents and young adults with hiv infection. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006. 83:870-879.
THE INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM - FRIEND AND FOE -
Kelley, D.S., Stephensen, C.B. 2006. THE INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM - FRIEND AND FOE. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 83:187-188, 2006.
LYSINE DEFICIENCY AND FEED RESTRITION INDEPENDENTLY ALTER CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER EXPRESSION IN CHICKENS -
Humphrey, B.D., Stephensen, C.B., Calvert, C.C., Klasing, K.C. 2006. Lysine deficiency and feed restrition independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A 143:218-227.
RETINOID X RECEPTOR AGONISTS INCREASE BCL2A1 EXPRESSION AND DECREASE APOPTOSIS OF NAÏVE T LYMPHOCYTES -
Rasooly, R., Schuster, G.U., Gregg, J.P., Xiao, J.H., Chandraratna, R., Stephensen, C.B. 2005. RETINOID X RECEPTOR AGONISTS INCREASE BCL2A1 EXPRESSION AND DECREASE APOPTOSIS OF NAÏVE T LYMPHOCYTES. Journal of Immunology. 175:7916-7929.
PLASMA CYTOKINIES AND OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN HIV-POSITIVE AND HIV-NEGATIVE ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS: A PROTECTIVE ROLE FOR IL-10? -
Stephensen, C.B., Marquis, G.S., Douglas, S.D., Wilson, C.M. 2005. Plasma cytokinies and oxidative damage in hiv-positive and hiv-negative adolescents and young adults: a protective role for il-10. Trade Journal Publication.
FISH OIL AND INFLAMMATORY DISEASE: IS ASTHMA THE NEXT TARGET FOR N-3 FATTY ACID SUPPLEMENTS? -
Stephensen, C.B. 2004. Fish oil and inflammatory disease: is asthma the next target for n-3 fatty acid supplements?. Nutrition Reviews. 62(12):486-9.
IMMUNE ACTIVATION AND OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN HIV-POSITIVE AND HIV-NEGATIVE ADOLESCENTS -
Stephensen, C.B., Marquis, G.S., Kruzich, L., Jacob, R.A., Douglas, S., Wilson, C. 2005. Immune activation and oxidative damage in hiv-positive and hiv-negative adolescents. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 2005. 38(2):180-90.
VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY INCREASES THE IN VIVO DEVELOPMENT OF IL-10-POSITIVE TH2 AND DECREASES DEVELOPMENT OF TH1 CELLS IN MICE -
Stephensen, C.B., Jiang, X., Freytag, T. 2004. Vitamin a deficiency increases the in vivo development of il-10-positive th2 and decreases development of th1 cells in mice. Journal of Nutrition. 134:2660-2666.
GLUCOSE AND CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER EXPRESSION IN GROWING CHICKENS (GALLUS GALLUS DOMESTICUS) -
Humphrey, B.D., Stephensen, C.B., Calvert, C.C., Klasing, K.C. 2004. GLUCOSE AND CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER EXPRESSION IN GROWING CHICKENS (GALLUS GALLUS DOMESTICUS). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 138:515-525.
VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY INCREASES INCREASES IN VIVO DEVELOPMENT OF IL-10-PROSITIVE TH2 CELLS AND DECREASES DEVELOPMENT OF TH-1 CELLS IN MICE -
Stephensen, C.B., Jiang, X., Freytab, T. 2004. Vitamin a deficiency increases increases in vivo development of il-10-prositive th2 cells and decreases development of th-1 cells in mice. Journal of Nutrition. 134:2660-2666, 2004.
U.S. YOUTH IN THE EARLY STAGE OF HIV DISEASE HAVE LOW INTAKES OF SOME MICRONUTRIENTS IMPORTANT FOR OPTIMAL IMMUNE FUNCTION -
Kruzich, L.A., Marquis, G.S., Carriquirry, A.L., Wilson, C.M., Stephensen, C.B. 2004. U.S. youth in the early stage of hiv disease have low intakes of some micronutrients important for optimal immune function. American Dietetic Association. 104(7): 1095-1101.
HIV-INFECTED U.S. YOUTH ARE AT HIGH RISK OF OBESITY AND POOR DIETARY QUALITY: A CHALLENGE FOR IMPROVING SHORT- AND LONG-TERM HEALTH OUTCOMES -
Kruzich, L.A., Marquis, G.S., Wilson, C.M., Stephensen, C.B. 2004. Hiv-infected u.s. youth are at high risk of obesity and poor dietary quality: a challenge for improving short- and long-term health outcomes. American Dietetic Association. Vol.104 N.10:1554-1560.
COMMENTARY: A HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION, VACCINES AND CHILDHOOD MORTALITY -
Stephensen, C.B. 2003. Commentary: a hypothesis concerning vitamin a supplementation, vaccines and childhood mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology. 32(5):828-829.
MODERATE ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION HAS NO EFFECT ON BIOMARKERS OF OXIDANTDAMAGE IN HEALTHY MEN WITH LOW FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTAKES -
Last Modified: 8/26/2016
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