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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Albany, California » Western Regional Research Center » Crop Improvement and Genetics Research » People & Locations » Kent McCue

Kent McCue
Crop Improvement and Genetics Research
Research Geneticist

Phone: (510) 559-5796
Fax: (510) 559-5818
Room 0136

USDA, ARS, PWA, WRRC-CIU
800 BUCHANAN STREET
ALBANY, CA 94710
Projects
Molecular Genetic Tools Advancing the Application of Biotechnology for Crop Improvement
In-House Appropriated (D)
  Accession Number: 434430

Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
Abiotic and biotic influences on the performance of two biological control agents, Neochetina bruchi and N. eichhorniae, in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California (USA) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hopper, J.V., Pratt, P.D., Reddy, A.M., McCue, K.F., Rivas, S.O., Grosholz, E.D. 2020. Abiotic and biotic influences on the performance of two biological control agents, Neochetina bruchi and N. eichhorniae, in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California (USA). Biological Control. 153. Article 104495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2020.104495.
Into the weeds: matching importation history to genetic consequences and pathways in two widely used biological control agents Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hopper, J.V., McCue, K.F., Pratt, P.D., Duchesne, P., Grosholz, E.D., Hufbauer, R. 2019. Into the weeds: matching importation history to genetic consequences and pathways in two widely used biological control agents. Evolutionary Applications. 12(4):773-790. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12755.
Draft genome sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain 1D1526 Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Huo, N., Gu, Y.Q., Mc Cue, K.F., Alabed, D., Thomson, J.G. 2019. Draft genome sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain 1D1526. Microbiology Resource Announcements. 8(45). https://doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01084-19.
Transgene stacking in potato using the GAANTRY system Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
McCue, K.F., Gardner, E.B., Chan, R., Thilmony, R.L., Thomson, J.G. 2019. Transgene stacking in potato using the GAANTRY system. BMC Research Notes. 12:457. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4493-8.
Complete genome sequence of Agrobacterium fabrum strain 1D159 Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Huo, N., Gu, Y.Q., McCue, K.F., Alabed, D., Thomson, J.G. 2019. Complete genome sequence of Agrobacterium fabrum strain 1D159. Microbiology Resource Announcements. 8(19):e00207-19. https://doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00207-19.
The Potato Association of America, a professional society for advancement of the potato industry - (Abstract Only)
Draft genome sequence of serratia sp. 1D1416 Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Alabed, D.F., Huo, N., Gu, Y.Q., McCue, K.F., Thomson, J.G. 2019. Draft genome sequence of serratia sp. 1D1416. Microbiology Resource Announcements. 8(3):e01354-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01354-18.
Mitigation of acrylamide: a multidisciplinary approach to an industry problem Reprint Icon - (Proceedings)
Mc Cue, K.F. 2018. Mitigation of acrylamide: a multidisciplinary approach to an industry problem. American Journal of Potato Research. 95:338-339. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12230-018-9661-1.
Modification of potato steroidal glycoalkaloids with silencing RNA constructs Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
McCue, K.F., Breksa III, A.P., Vilches, A.M., Belknap, W.R. 2018. Modification of potato steroidal glycoalkaloids with silencing RNA constructs. American Journal of Potato Research. 95:9-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12230-018-9658-9.
Measurement of Transgene Copy Number in Potatoes Using Droplet Digital PCR Reprint Icon - (Abstract Only)
Mc Cue, K.F., Collier, R.A., Gardner, E.B., Thilmony, R.L. 2018. Measurement of Transgene Copy Number in Potatoes Using Droplet Digital PCR. Meeting Abstract. 95(3):208-229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12230-018-9650-4.
Spatial and temporal variation of biological control agents associated with Eichhornia crassipes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hopper, J.V., Pratt, P.D., McCue, K.F., Pitcairn, M.J., Moran, P.J., Madsen, J.D. 2017. Spatial and temporal variation of biological control agents associated with Eichhornia crassipes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California. Biological Control. 111:13-22. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2017.05.005.
Accurate measurement of transgene copy number in crop plants using droplet digital PCR Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Collier, R.A., Dasgupta, K., Xing, Y., Hernandez, B., Shao, M., Rohozinski, D., Kovak, E., Lin, J.W., De Oliveira, M., Stover, E.W., Mc Cue, K.F., Harmon, F.G., Blechl, A.E., Thomson, J.G., Thilmony, R.L. 2017. Accurate measurement of transgene copy number in crop plants using droplet digital PCR. Plant Journal. 90:1014-1025. https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.13517.
Biological differences that distinguish the two major stages of wound healing in potato tubers - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lulai, E.C., Campbell, L.G., Fugate, K.K., McCue, K.F. 2016. Biological differences that distinguish the two major stages of wound healing in potato tubers. Plant Signaling and Behavior. 11(12):e31256531. doi:10.1080/15592324.2016.1256531.
Small cyclic amphipathic peptides (SCAmpPs) genes in citrus provide promising tools for more effective tissue specific transgenic expression Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Belknap, W.R., Thomson, J.G., Thilmony, R.L., McCue, K.F., Hao, G., Stover, E.W. 2017. Small cyclic amphipathic peptides (SCAmpPs) genes in citrus provide promising tools for more effective tissue specific transgenic expression. Acta Horticulturae. 1172:85-90. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1172.15.
Impact of light-exposure on the metabolite balance of transgenic potato tubers with modified glycoalkaloid biosynthesis - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shepherd, L., Hackett, C., Alexander, C., Mcnicol, J., Sungurtas, J., Mcrae, D., Mc Cue, K.F., Belknap, W.R., Davies, H. 2016. Impact of light-exposure on the metabolite balance of transgenic potato tubers with modified glycoalkaloid biosynthesis. Food Chemistry. 200:263-373.
Sequence analysis of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso-C) isolated from carrot psyllids collected in Scandinavia - (Proceedings)
Mc Cue, K.F., Lazo, G.R., Munyaneza, J.E. 2016. Sequence analysis of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso-C) isolated from carrot psyllids collected in Scandinavia. Meeting Proceedings. 2014. pp 152-156.
Bacterial pathogen genomics: liberibacters from around the world. - (Abstract Only)
Modifying glycoalkaloid content in transgenic potato – Metabolome impacts - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shepherd, L., Hacket, C., Alexander, C., McNicol, J., Sungurtas, J., Stewart, D., McCue, K.F., Belknap, W.R., Davies, H.V. 2015. Modifying glycoalkaloid content in transgenic potato – Metabolome impacts. Food Chemistry. 187:437-443.
Comparison of Candiatus Liberibacter solanacearum genomic sequences isolated from carrot psyllids in Scandinavia and potato psyllids from Texas - (Abstract Only)
Liberibacter-associated disease occurrence in Central America - (Proceedings)
The potato psyllid genome project - (Proceedings)
Bextine, B.R., Hail, D., Mc Cue, K.F., Lazo, G.R., Munyaneza, J.E. 2014. The potato psyllid genome project. 13th Annual SCRI Zebra Chip Reporting Session. November 2-6, 2013, San Antonio, Texas. 64-67.
Potato psyllid genome and metagenome project - (Abstract Only)
First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" on pepper in Honduras - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Munyaneza, J.E., Sengoda, V.G., Aguilar, E., Bextine, B., Mc Cue, K.F. 2014. First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" on pepper in Honduras. Plant Disease. 98:154.
First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" infecting eggplant in Honduras - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Munyaneza, J.E., Sengoda, V.G., Aguilar, E., Bextine, B.R., Mc Cue, K.F. 2013. First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" infecting eggplant in Honduras. Plant Disease. 97:1654 http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-13-0641-PDN.
Dark side of reducing sugars. Sugar isn’t always desirable, at least not in potato processing ()
Mc Cue, K.F., Novy, R.G. 2013. Dark side of reducing sugars. Sugar isn’t always desirable, at least not in potato processing. Spudman. July/August:30-31.
The Pangean origin of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' species - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nelson, W.R., Munyaneza, J.E., McCue, K.F., Bove, J.M. 2013. The Pangean origin of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' species. Journal of Plant Pathology. 95:455-461; doi: 10.4454/jpp.v9513.001.
First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psylllid-affected tobacco in Honduras - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Aguilar, E., Sengoda, V.G., Bextine, B., Mc Cue, K.F., Munyaneza, J.E. 2013. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psylllid-affected tobacco in Honduras. Plant Disease. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-13-0453-PDN.
First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in Honduras - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Aguilar, E., Sengoda, V.G., Bextine, B., Mc Cue, K.F., Munyaneza, J.E. 2013. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in Honduras. Plant Disease. 97:1375.
First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in El Salvador - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bextine, B., Aguilar, E., Rueda, A., Caceres, O., Sengoda, V.G., Mc Cue, K.F., Munyaneza, J.E. 2013. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in El Salvador. Plant Disease. 97:1245.
First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected tobacco in Nicaragua - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Munyaneza, J.E., Sengoda, V.G., Aguilar, E., Bextine, B., Mc Cue, K.F. 2013. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected tobacco in Nicaragua. Plant Disease. 97:1244.
Generation of PVY coat protein siRNAs in transgenic potatoes resistant to PVY. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mc Cue, K.F., Ponciano, G.P., Rockhold, D.R., Whitworth, J.L., Gray, S.M., Fofanov, Y., Belknap, W.R. 2012. Generation of PVY coat protein siRNAs in transgenic potatoes resistant to PVY. American Journal of Potato Research. 89(5):374-383. DOI: 10.1007/s12230-012-9257-0.
Resistance to PVY using siRNA in transgenic potatoes(Abstract) - (Abstract Only)
Mc Cue, K.F., Rockhold, D.R., Ponciano, G.P., Gray, S.M., Whitworth, J.L., Fofanov, Y., Belknap, W.R. 2013. Resistance to PVY using siRNA in transgenic potatoes(Abstract). American Journal of Potato Research. 90(2):p138-139.
Structure of two solanum tuberosum steroidal glycoalkaloid glycosyltransferase genes and expression of their promoters in transgenic potatoes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mc Cue, K.F., Rockhold, D.R., Chhan, A., Belknap, W.R. 2011. Structure of two solanum tuberosum steroidal glycoalkaloid glycosyltransferase genes and expression of their promoters in transgenic potatoes. American Journal of Potato Research. 88(6):485-492 doi:10.1007/s12230-011-9215-2.
Breeding for sustainable production in a changing climate – understanding the physiological basis of genetic by environmental interactions - (Abstract Only)
USDA Potato Small RNA Database ()
Mc Cue, K.F. 2010. USDA Potato Small RNA Database. Available:http://avena.pw.usda.gov/potato.
Application of intragenic technology for development of disease-resistant potato - (Abstract Only)
Ponciano, G.P., Rommens, C.M., Rockhold, D.R., Mc Cue, K.F., Whalen, M.C., Belknap, W.R. 2010. Application of intragenic technology for development of disease-resistant potato. The American Phytopathological Society Annual Meeting, August 7-11, 2010, Nashville, TN.
High throughput sequencing of small RNAs in Potato Leaves - (Abstract Only)
Expression of siRNA Conferring Resistance to PVY in Transgenic Potatoes - (Abstract Only)
Sequencing Higher Eukaryotes from Ultra-Low Starting Concentrations - (Abstract Only)
Analysis of Abundant sRNAs from Potato Leaves - (Abstract Only)
Gene Rpi-bt1 from Solanum bulbocastanum confers resistance to late blight in transgenic potatoes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Oosumi, T., Rockhold, D.R., Maccree, M.M., Deahl, K.L., Mc Cue, K.F., Belknap, W.R. 2009. Gene Rpi-bt1 from Solanum bulbocastanum confers resistance to late blight in transgenic potatoes. American Journal of Potato Research. 86(6):456-465.
Cloning and Characterization of a Late Blight Resistance Gene (Rpi-bt1) and other Resistance Gene Analogs from Solanum bulbocastanum - (Abstract Only)
Mc Cue, K.F., Oosumi, T., Rockhold, D.R., Deahl, K.L., Belknap, W.R. 2010. Cloning and Characterization of a Late Blight Resistance Gene (Rpi-bt1) and other Resistance Gene Analogs from Solanum bulbocastanum[abstract].American journal of Potato Research.87(1):133.
Transcriptional Control Sequences for Intragenic Potatoes - (Abstract Only)
Rockhold, D.R., Mc Cue, K.F., Belknap, W.R. Transcriptional Control Sequences for Intragenic Potatoes(abstract). Crop Improvement and Utilization Intragenics Workshop. p. 3.
Potato Glycoalkaloids, Past Present and Future - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mc Cue, K.F. 2009. Potato Glycoalkaloids, Past Present and Future. Fruit, Vegetable, and Cereal Science and Biotechnology. 3:65-71.
Potato Genome Sequencing: A Short Glimpse of the Non-Repetitive. - (Abstract Only)
Useful promoters and terminators from Solanum bulbocastanum for use in potatoes and other crops. - (Abstract Only)
Mc Cue, K.F., Rockhold, D.R., Allen, P.V., Belknap, W.R. 2009. Useful promoters and terminators from Solanum bulbocastanum for use in potatoes and other crops. American Journal of Potato Research. 86(2):152.
STRUCTURE OF TWO SOLANUM BULBOCASTANUM POLYUBIQUITIN GENES AND EXPRESSION OF THEIR PROMOTERS IN TRANSGENIC POTATOES - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Rockhold, D.R., Chang, S., Taylor, N., Allen, P.V., Mc Cue, K.F., Belknap, W.R. 2008. Structure of two solanum bulbocastanum polyubiquitin genes and expression of their promoters in transgenic potatoes. American Journal of Potato Research. 85:219-226.
AN IMPROVED PLANT TRANSFORMATION VECTOR BASED ON PBINPLUS - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Belknap, W.R., Rockhold, D.R., Mc Cue, K.F. 2008. An improved plant transformation vector based on pbinplus. Biotechniques. 44:739-750.
MANIPULATION AND COMPENSATION OF STEROIDAL GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS IN POTATOES - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mc Cue, K.F., Allen, P.V., Shepherd, L.V., Blake, A., Rockhold, D.R., Novy, R.G., Stewart, D., Davies, H.V., Belknap, W.R. 2007. Manipulation and compensation of steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis in potatoes. Acta Horticulturae. 745: 343-349.
POTATO GLYCOSTEROL RHAMNOSYLTRANFERASE, THE TERMINAL STEP IN TRIOSE SIDE-CHAIN BIOSYNTHESIS - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mc Cue, K.F., Allen, P.V., Shepherd, L., Blake, A., Maccree, M., Rockhold, D.R., Novy, R.G., Stewart, D., Davies, H., Belknap, W.R. 2007. Potato glycosterol rhamnosyltranferase, the terminal step in triose side-chain biosynthesis. Phytochemistry. 68(3): 327-334.
POTATO GLYCOSTEROL RHAMNOSYLTRANSFERASE, THE TERMINAL STEP IN TRIOSE SIDE-CHAIN BIOSYNTHESIS - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mc Cue, K.F., Allen, P.V., Shepherd, L.V., Blake, A., Maccree, M.M., Rockhold, D.R., Novy, R.G., Stewart, D., Davies, H.V., Belknap, W.R. 2007. Potato glycosterol rhamnosyltransferase, the terminal step in triose side-chain biosynthesis. Phytochemistry. 68 (3): 327-334.
MANIPULATION AND COMPENSATION OF STEROIDAL GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS IN POTATOES - (Abstract Only)
Mc Cue, K.F., Allen, P.V., Shepherd, L.V., Blake, A., Rockhold, D.R., Novy, R.G., Stewart, D., Davies, H.V., Belknap, W.R. 2007. Manipulation and compensation of steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis in potatoes. American Journal of Potato Research. 84 (1) 103-104.
THE PRIMARY IN VITRO STEROIDAL ALKALOID GLUCOSYLTRANSFERASE FROM POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mc Cue, K.F., Allen, P.V., Shepherd, L., Blake, A., Whitworth, J.L., Maccree, M., Rockhold, D.R., Stewart, D., Davies, H., Belknap, W.R. 2006. The primary in vitro steroidal alkaloid glucosyltransferase from potato (solanum tuberosum). Phytochemistry. 67 (15):1590-1597
IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL UDP-GLUCOSE: SOLANIDINE GLUCOSYL TRANSFERASE AT THE COMMITTED STEP IN STEROIDAL GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS IN POTATOES. - (Abstract Only)
Mc Cue, K.F., Allen, P.V., Shepherd, L., Blake, A., Whitworth, J.L., Rockhold, D.R., Stewart, D., Davies, H., Belknap, W.R. 2005. Identification and characterization of a novel udp-glucose: solanidine glucosyl transferase at the committed step in steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis in potatoes. American Journal of Potato Research. 83 (1): 123
Modification of Potato SGA'S-A Lesson in Applied Metabolmics - (Abstract Only)
Mc Cue, K.F., Shepherd, L., Rockhold, D.R., Allen, P.V., Davies, H., Belknap, W.R. 2005. Modification of Potato SGA'S-A Lesson in Applied Metabolmics. American Chemical Society. 229:U83.
Metabolic compensation of steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis in transgenic potato tubers: using reverse genetics to confirm the in vivo enzyme function of a steroidal alkaloid galactosyltransferase - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mc Cue, K.F., Sheperd, L., Allen, P.V., Maccree, M.M., Rockhold, D.R., Corsini, D.L., Davies, H.V., Belknap, W.R. 2004. Metabolic compensation of steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis in transgenic potato tubers: using reverse genetics to confirm the in vivo enzyme function of a steroidal alkaloid galactosyltransferase. Plant Science. 168(1):267-273.
IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A UDP-GALACTOSE:SOLANIDINE GALACTOSLY TRANSFERASE, A BRANCHPOINT IN TRIOSE FORMATION OF STEROIDAL GLYCOALKALOIDS - (Abstract Only)
Mc Cue, K.F., Allen, P.V., Shepherd, L., Rockhold, D.R., Davies, H., Belknap, W.R. 2005. Identification and characterization of a udp-galactose:solanidine galactosly transferase, a branchpoint in triose formation of steroidal glycoalkaloids. American Journal of Potato Research. 82(1):80-81.
MODIFIED STEROIDALALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS IN TRANSGENIC TUBERS CONTAINING AN ANTISENSE STEROL GLYCO TRANSFERASE (SGT) GENE ENCODING A NOVEL ALKALOID DIGLYCOSIDE RHAMNOSYL TRANSFERASE - (Abstract Only)
MC CUE, K.F., SHEPARD, L.V., ALLEN, P.V., MACCREE, M.M., ROCKHOLD, D.R., DAVIES, H.V., BELKNAP, W.R. 2003. MODIFIED STEROIDALALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS IN TRANSGENIC TUBERS CONTAINING AN ANTISENSE STEROL GLYCO TRANSFERASE (SGT) GENE ENCODING A NOVEL ALKALOID DIGLYCOSIDE RHAMNOSYL TRANSFERASE. POTATO ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA PROCEEDINGS. 80(4):32.
APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED POTATO PROCESSING - (Proceedings)
MC CUE, K.F. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED POTATO PROCESSING. The Fourth International Potato Processing Conference. 2003.
REDUCTION OF TOTAL STEROIDAL GLYCOALKALOIDS IN POTATO TUBERS USING ANTISENSE CONSTRUCTS OF A GENE ENCODING A SOLANIDINE GLUCOSYL TRANSFERASE - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mc Cue, K.F., Corsini, D.L., Allen, P.V., Rockhold, D.R., Mccree, M.M., Sheperd, L., Moehs, C.P., Joyce, P., Davies, H.V., Belknap, W.R. 2004. Reduction of total steroidal glycoalkaloids in potato tubers using antisense constructs of a gene encoding a solanidine glucosyl transferase. Acta Horticulturae. 619: 77-86 (2003)
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON EXPRESSION OF GENES ENCODING ENZYMES FOR STARCH BIOSYNTHESIS IN DEVELOPING WHEAT ENDOSPERM - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
HURKMAN, W.J., MCCUE,K.F., ALTENBACH, S.B., KORN, A.M., TANAKA, C.K., KOTHARI, K.M., BECHTEL, D.B., WILSON, J.D., ANDERSON, O.D., DUPONT, F.M. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON EXPRESSION OF GENES ENCODING ENZYMES FOR STARCH BIOSYNTHESIS IN DEVELOPING WHEAT ENDOSPERM. PLANT SCIENCE. 2003. 164: 873-881
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON EXPRESSION OF GENES ENCODING ENZYMES FOR STARCH BIOSYNTHESIS IN DEVELOPING WHEAT ENDOSPERM - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hurkman, W.J., Mc Cue, K.F., Altenbach, S.B., Korn, A.M., Tanaka, C.K., Kothari, K.M., Bechtel, D.B., Wilson, J.D., Anderson, O.D., Dupont, F.M. 2003. Effect of temperature on expression of genes encoding enzymes for starch biosynthesis in developing wheat endosperm. Plant Science. 164(5):873-881.
COMPARISON OF ORTHOLOGOUS AND PARALOGOUS DNA FLANKING THE WHEAT HMW- GLUTENIN GENES: SEQUENCE CONSERVATION AND DIVERGENCE, TRANSPOSON DISTRIBUTION, AND MATRIX-ATTACHMENT-REGIONS. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)